This part of the book describes explicit mathematical models for the affective, cognitive, and social components of Agent_Zero. It first considers some underlying neuroscience of fear and the role of the amygdala before turning to Rescorla–Wagner equations of conditioning. In particular, it explains how the fear circuit can be activated and how fear conditioning can occur unconsciously. It then reviews some standard nomenclature adopted by Ivan Pavlov in his study, Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, with emphasis on David Hume's “association of ideas,” the theory of conditioning, and the Rescorla–Wagner model. After examining “the passions,” the discussion focuses on reason, Agent_Zero's cognitive component, and the model's social component. The central case is that the agent initiates the group's behavior despite starting with the lowest disposition, with no initial emotional inclination, no evidence, the same threshold as all others, and no orders from above.
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