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TerrifiedHow Anti-Muslim Fringe Organizations Became Mainstream$
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Christopher A. Bail

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780691159423

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691159423.001.0001

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From the Slave Trade to the September 11th Attacks

From the Slave Trade to the September 11th Attacks

(p.17) Chapter 2 From the Slave Trade to the September 11th Attacks

Christopher Bail

Princeton University Press

This chapter begins with a brief history of the dozens of civil society organizations that worked to shape the representation of Muslims within the American public sphere before the September 11 attacks. These include a diverse array of African American and immigrant Muslim organizations, as well as Jewish, Christian, and nonreligious civil society organizations that became involved in public discussions about Islam during the Arab–Israeli War, the Iranian hostage crisis, and other high-profile events involving Muslims. This broad historical perspective highlights the emergence of mainstream civil society organizations that produced positive or neutral messages about Muslims in the decade before the September 11th attacks, alongside a small group of fringe organizations with predominantly anti-Muslim messages.

Keywords:   civil society organizations, September 11, Middle East conflict, Islam, Muslims, fringe organizations

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