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TerrifiedHow Anti-Muslim Fringe Organizations Became Mainstream$
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Christopher A. Bail

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780691159423

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691159423.001.0001

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The Evolution of Cultural Environments

The Evolution of Cultural Environments

(p.131) Chapter 8 The Evolution of Cultural Environments

Christopher Bail

Princeton University Press

This chapter summarizes the evolutionary theory of how civil society organizations shape the evolution of cultural environments in the wake of major crises such as the September 11 attacks. It discusses the international implications of the rise of anti-Muslim messages within the American public sphere. It argues that the evolution of shared understandings of Islam in the American public sphere cannot be explained via cultural, structural, or social-psychological factors alone. Rather than independent causal factors competing for influence, culture, structure, and social psychology are best described as interdependent forces that combine to produce a new status quo as societies transition out of crises. The interpenetration of culture, structure, and social psychology creates a particularly powerful form of cultural change because it is largely invisible.

Keywords:   civil society organizations, September 11, anti-Muslim organizations, cultural environment, culture, structure, social psychology

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