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Paradoxes of Liberal DemocracyIslam, Western Europe, and the Danish Cartoon Crisis$
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Paul M. Sniderman, Michael Bang Petersen, Rune Slothuus, and Rune Stubager

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780691161105

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691161105.001.0001

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The Democratic Impulse

The Democratic Impulse

(p.141) Chapter 6 The Democratic Impulse
Paradoxes of Liberal Democracy

Paul M. Sniderman

Michael Bang Petersen

Rune Slothuus

Rune Stubager

Princeton University Press

This chapter presents the broader lessons learned from the present analysis, covering the categorization paradox, covenant paradox, and inclusive tolerance. It considers the reasons for the divergence between the authors' (relatively) optimistic picture of democratic citizenship and the decidedly pessimistic one of previous research. It discusses how the grounds for optimism about liberal democracy are also grounds for pessimism; and how the moral covenant undergirding the welfare state that promotes equal treatment for younger immigrants also legitimizes discrimination against older ones. It also identifies the requirements of inclusive tolerance. Accordingly, for a person to qualify as inclusively tolerant, they must treat minorities as members of a common community in spite of having immediately available as well as salient a socially acceptable reason to treat them differently and worse.

Keywords:   democratic citizenship, categorization paradox, covenant paradox, inclusive tolerance, immigrants, liberal democracy, welfare state, equal treatment

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