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The Age of the Democratic RevolutionA Political History of Europe and America, 1760-1800$
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R. R. Palmer

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780691161280

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691161280.001.0001

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The Republics at Rome and Naples

The Republics at Rome and Naples

(p.642) Chapter XXVII The Republics at Rome and Naples
The Age of the Democratic Revolution

R. R. Palmer

Princeton University Press

This chapter focuses the peace that prevailed on the Continent from the signing of the treaty of Campo Formio in October 1797 to the attack on Rome by the King of Naples in November 1798, which proved to be the opening episode in the War of the Second Coalition, and hence of the grand climax or confrontation in 1799 between the Old Regime and the New Republican Order. It argues that the peace was no more than a semi-peace. On the one hand, neither France nor Austria could accept the terms of Campo Formio with any finality. Each looked for bastions against the other in Switzerland and Italy. On the other hand, France with its Dutch ally remained at war with Great Britain. While British diplomacy worked to bring Continental armies back into the field against France, the French first threatened to invade England and support revolution in Ireland, then redirected their fleet and army into the expedition to Egypt, from which it was hoped that Bonaparte could counteract the growth of British power in the Indian Ocean, where both French and Dutch interests were at stake. The Egyptian campaign transferred the Anglo-French conflict to the Mediterranean and the Near East.

Keywords:   France, Campo Formio treaty, Rome, King of Naples, Austria, Egypt, Continental armies, peace, War of the Second Coalition, Old Regime, New Republican Order, British diplomacy

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