This chapter illustrates problems that need to be overcome when interconnecting components into more complex systems and proposes a number of engineering solutions based on the feedback principles introduced in Chapter 3. Specifically, the chapter explains how loading effects arise at the interconnection between modules, which change the expected circuit behavior. These loading problems appear in several other engineering domains, including electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic systems, and have been largely addressed by the respective engineering communities. In this chapter, it is explained how similar engineering solutions can be employed in biomolecular systems to defeat loading effects and guarantee a “modular” interconnection of circuits.
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