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Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness TheoryAn Introduction$
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James A.R. Marshall

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780691161563

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.001.0001

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Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule

Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule

(p.46) Chapter Four Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule
Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory

James A.R. Marshall

Princeton University Press

This chapter examines how the logic of inclusive fitness theory can be mathematically formalized using the Price equation, and how that formalization can be used to derive Hamilton's rule in its simplest form, as applied to unconditional behaviors having additive effects on fitness. Various biological phenomena, such as sex allocation and working policing within eusocial insect colonies, have been analyzed by considering what strategies maximize individuals' inclusive fitness, and how observed social behaviors should correlate with quantities such as relatedness. The chapter derives Hamilton's rule by introducing some notation for the effects of behaviors on fitnesses of individuals that interact socially, to make explicit precisely how genes (and later phenotypes) affect fitness, and to give a general form of Hamilton's rule that will apply to any (unconditional, additive) behavior regardless of its details. It shows that inclusive fitness is a genuinely novel extension of the classical fitness studied by Charles Darwin, R. A. Fisher, and others.

Keywords:   inclusive fitness theory, Price equation, Hamilton's rule, unconditional behaviors, fitness, social behaviors, relatedness, genes, Charles Darwin, R. A. Fisher

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