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Jewish EmancipationA History Across Five Centuries$
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David Sorkin

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780691164946

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691164946.001.0001

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Maghreb and Mashreq

Maghreb and Mashreq

Chapter:
(p.320) Chapter Twenty-Five Maghreb and Mashreq
Source:
Jewish Emancipation
Author(s):

David Sorkin

Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691164946.003.0026

This chapter examines how the effective end of Jewish life in the Maghreb and Mashreq constituted not only the demise of a distinctive diaspora and a major demographic shift but also the collapse of a political status. For over a millennium, Jews had lived under Islam as an inferior yet protected minority. Equal citizenship in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries did not prove as durable. Most Algerian Jews emigrated with the “repatriate exodus” following independence (1962). The majority of Tunisia's Jews left in the eleven years between independence (1956) and the aftermath of the 1967 Six Day War. Morocco had had the largest Jewish community in the Arab world; Jews fled in four waves: 1948–56, 1961–64 with free emigration, 1967, and 1973. Meanwhile, most of Egypt's Jews departed after either the 1948 war (1949–52) or Nasser's nationalist revolution (1956). The majority of Iraq's Jews emigrated in the period 1948–51; many Jews left Turkey in the period 1948–55 and after 1967, yet a substantial number remained. The twentieth century's challenges to the region, especially the rise of exclusionary nationalism during decolonization and afterward as well as its collision with Jewish nationalism, put on full display not just a minority's vulnerability but also the abiding fragility of equal rights.

Keywords:   Jewish life, Maghreb, Mashreq, political status, Jews, Islam, equal citizenship, decolonization, Jewish nationalism, equal rights

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