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Uneven Centuries$
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Sevket Pamuk

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780691166377

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691166377.001.0001

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Economic Development and Institutional Change, 1914–1950

Economic Development and Institutional Change, 1914–1950

(p.184) 8 Economic Development and Institutional Change, 1914–1950
Uneven Centuries

Şevket Pamuk

Princeton University Press

This chapter explains how the period 1913 to 1950 was exceptionally difficult for Turkey. The country had to deal with the difficulties of the transition from being part of a larger empire to becoming a nation-state within new borders. Available data suggest income per capita declined by as much as 40 percent during World War I and remained depressed until the end of the War of Independence in 1922. Per capita incomes then increased rapidly in the 1920s and caught up with their pre-World War I levels and may have even slightly exceeded them by 1929. They then fell sharply, by more than 30 percent during World War II. Given these very large fluctuations in per capita income, it makes a big difference which end years are used in calculating the average growth rates for this period.

Keywords:   Turkey, nation-state, income per capita, World War I, War of Independence, World War II, growth rates

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