This concluding chapter discusses how most countries around the world have experienced significant increases in per capita income and improvements in human development during the last two centuries. For instance, GDP per capita in the area within Turkey's current borders has increased approximately fifteenfold since 1820. While Turkey did slightly better than the averages for the developing countries, the gap with developed countries widened significantly. The most basic reason for this pattern was the relatively rapid industrialization in Western Europe and North America, while Turkey as well as other developing countries stayed mostly with agriculture. The most important proximate cause of the large divergence in per capita incomes between Western Europe and much of the rest of the world was the very different rates of adoption of the new technologies of the Industrial Revolution.
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