This chapter concludes that the book has explored the relationship between literature and secularism during the reforms of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Egypt. It has discussed textual analysis from the standpoint of competing interpretative worlds: in one instance, a discussion of Charles Darwin within the context of a family, and in another, frames for understanding the relationship of literature and religion in the work of Taha Hussein. The chapter draws together some of the underlying arguments at stake across the chapters and considers their implications for our work as comparatists. It raises a number of questions and challenges regarding the study of literature by assessing the presumptions of a global public sphere and the parameters of critique and opinion in a literary world. Finally, it comments on Erich Auerbach's 1952 essay “Philologie der Weltliteratur,” in which he traces the relationship between history, philology, and world literature.
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