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Secrets and LeaksThe Dilemma of State Secrecy$

Rahul Sagar

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780691168180

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691168180.001.0001

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(p.269) Index

(p.269) Index

Source:
Secrets and Leaks
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
ABC News (television network), 159
Abramowicz, David, 239n84
Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal, 147–48, 162
accountability:
anonymity as obstacle to, 6;
of executive, 3, 25–26;
of judicial review, 69, 71–73;
of private actors in disclosures and leaks, 114–15;
unauthorized disclosures as aid to, 113
Ackerman, Bruce, 95–96, 158
ACLU v. NSA (2006), 67
Adams, John, 20
Adams, John Quincy, 32
Adams, Zabdiel, 22
Adler, Renata, 227n56
adversarialism:
in executive branch, 190;
in oversight and regulation, 95–97;
in press-government relations, 166–67, 193–94
Afghanistan, 9, 141
Aftergood, Steven, 54
Aftergood v. CIA (2005), 54
Agee, Philip, Inside the Company, 178
Aid, Matthew, 109
Aiken, George, 83
Air Force, 60, 63
Alexander, Andrew, 168
Alford, Fred, 151
Algeciras Conference, 37
Allen, William, 32
Allende, Salvador, 91
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 79, 114
American Society of Newspaper Editors, 43, 197
Anderson, Jack, 109, 110, 123
Andrew, Christopher, 109
anonymity of disclosures:
abuse of, 158–62;
circumstances permitting, 137–38;
difficulties in combating, 156–57;
effectiveness of, 153–54;
issues concerning, 6–7, 14, 115–16;
justifiability of, 162–70;
leaks and, 153–54, 158–70;
motives hidden by, 6–7, 115, 135–38, 165;
power and status of sources, 227n56;
press’s use of, 168, 198–201;
refusal of, 134–35;
working relationships harmed by, 110. See also confidential sources
Anti-Federalists, 24, 26, 186
antitheft statute, 105
appeals, judicial, 72
Applbaum, Arthur, 230n3, 230n7
arcana imperii (mysteries of state), 19
Aristides, 190
Article I, of U.S. Constitution, 27, 117–18, 147, 169, 202
Articles of Confederation, 21
Ashcroft, John, 157–61, 191
Aspin, Les, 91
Athens, ancient Greece, 17, 190
Atomic Energy Act, 107
attorney general, 52
(p.270) authorized disclosures of classified information, 90
Bacon, Augustus, 37, 39
bad faith disclosures, 154, 164, 171, 176–77
Baldwin, Abraham, 31
Banks, William, 83
Baquet, Dean, 112, 167
Barlow, Richard, 141–42, 232n45
Barrett, David, 54, 214n182
Beirut, Lebanon, 109–10
Benjamin, Daniel, 124
Bentham, Jeremy, 20, 207n29, 222n43
Benton, Thomas, 32
Bergen, Peter, 125
Berger, Raoul, 17
Bernstein, Carl, 164
BeVier, Lillian, 49, 115, 176
Bickel, Alexander, 45, 128, 166–69, 193, 202
bilateralism, in cabinet appointments, 189–91
Bin Laden, Osama, 124–25
Bishop, Joseph, 82
Black, Hugo, 107, 200
Blackmun, Harry, 121
black sites. See secret prisons
Blasi, Vincent, 40, 176
Boeing Corporation, 63
Bok, Sissela, 47, 134
Boland, Edward, 91
Borah, William, 40
Bovens, Mark, 149, 230n3
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969), 122
Branzburg v. Hayes (1972), 106–7, 175
Brennan, William, 5
Brent, Richard, 222n44
British Foreign Office, 69
Brown, Fred, 198
Brownell, Herbert, 41
Bruce, James, 109
Bryan, William Jennings, 191
Bryce, James, 36–39
Buckley v. Valeo (1976), 173
bureaucracy, as cause of overclassification, 42
Burger, Warren, 58
Bush, George W., and administration:
congressional relations with, 94, 95, 97;
and disclosures, 155, 169, 193;
Justice Department and, 160;
maintenance of predecessors’ secrecy by, 55, 100;
President’s Daily Briefing withheld by, 85;
prosecutions of officials by, 48, 157;
and state secrecy, 8, 47, 53, 124;
and warrantless surveillance, 82, 158–59, 191
cabinet appointments, as instance of bilateralism,189–91
Calame, Byron, 168, 170, 196–97, 199
California, 34
Cambodia, bombing of, 45
Canada, 93
Canadian Caper, 93
Carpenter, Ted Galen, 193
Carter, Jimmy, 93
Casey, William, 84–85, 96
Casey Accord (1986), 84–85
CBS (television network), 124
censorship, 35, 40, 192–94, 198
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA):
budgets of, 54;
classification of information by, 52;
covert operations of, 63, 75–76, 91, 93, 96, 104, 112–13, 123, 160;
creation of, 40;
disclosure of identities of agents of, 106;
and extraordinary rendition, 63–65;
House investigations of, 89;
illegal activities of, 45;
informants used by, 115, 118;
information requests directed to, 57–59, 75–76, 123;
misuse of state secrets privilege by, 79;
racial discrimination by, 66;
secret prisons of, 155, 157–58, 163, 193;
surveillance by, 77;
whistleblowing on, 141–42
Central Intelligence Agency Act, 56
Chafee, Zechariah, 42, 43
Chalabi, Ahmed, 199
Charles I, king of England, 18, 19
checks and balances, 10, 16, 30, 39, 41. See also separation of powers
Cheney, Richard (Dick), 8, 95, 187
Chesney, Robert, 61, 65, 67–69, 78
Chicago & Southern Air Lines, Inc. v. Waterman SS Corp (1948), 70–71
Chicago Tribune (newspaper), 109, 229n89
China, 9
Church Committee, 85
CIA v. Sims (1985), 58–59, 66
city-states, Italian, 18
civil disobedience, 6, 135
civil liberties, 113
(p.271) civil secrecy, 7–8, 205n7
Civil Service Reform Act, 140, 148
civil society, 47, 114
Clark, Kathleen, 53, 101
classification of information:
contractual prohibitions concerning, 104–5;
declassification, 24, 47, 53–54, 72;
ethics of, 230n1;
exemptions for, 55–56;
guidelines for, 40, 44;
in camera review of, 60–61, 65–66, 70;
nondisclosure agreements on, 104;
overclassification, 42–43, 45–46, 111–13;
oversight and regulation of, 52–53;
Classified Information Procedures Act, 154
Clinton, Bill, and administration, 97
CNN (television network), 124
Code of Ethics, United States Government Service, 230n1
Cohen, Dan, 173–74
Cohen v. Cowles (1991), 173–74
Colby, William, 91, 123, 193
Cold War, 49, 54, 83, 192
comity, between executive and legislature, 39, 84
Commager, Henry Steele, 17, 207n31
Commission on Government Security (Wright Commission), 43
Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy (Moynihan Commission), 47
Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, 156
Committee of Secret Correspondence, 20
Committee on Public Information, 192
Condorcet, marquis de, 20
confidential sources, 46, 106–7, 116, 119, 161, 165, 167–70, 173–76, 226n22, 240n105. See also anonymity of disclosures
conflicts of interest, of sources, 171–76, 199
Congress:
access of, to state secrets, 27–30;
confidential sources of, 119;
core group of members given oversight responsibility, 47, 94–98;
criticism of the press by, 195–96;
deference of, 44, 72–73, 96;
effective practices of, on state secrecy, 101;
executive’s relations with, 33, 39, 82–84;
and foreign affairs, 38–39;
historical instances of state secrecy, 21;
information demands of, 31–33, 44, 81–84, 86;
internal sanctions of, 91–92, 222n44, 222n46;
maintenance of secrecy by, 25, 28–29, 87–95, 118–19;
misleading of, 96;
oversight of state secrecy by, 4, 12, 30–36, 45–48, 56–57, 80–102, 117–19, 202–3;
powers of, 39, 81–85;
secrecy employed by, 21–25, 28–29, 31;
unauthorized disclosures as information source for, 85–86, 102;
unauthorized disclosures of classified information by, 89–92, 222n46;
unauthorized disclosures screened by, 117–19, 133–34;
unrestricted access granted to, 88, 90–95;
and whistleblowing, 118, 133–34, 140
Congressional Record, 89
Constant, Benjamin, 38
Constitution, 10–11, 16–36, 205n7
Constitutional Convention, 21, 186
Continental Congress, 91. See also Second Continental Congress
Contingent Fund, 35, 211n120
Cook, Daniel, 33
Coolidge Committee, 43, 194
Cooper, Matthew, 106
Corbin, Francis, 28
Corwin, Edward, 38
Coser, Lewis, 41–42
courage, of whistleblowers, 150–52
Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, 99
Court of Federal Claims, 142
courts:
appeals process in, 72;
deference of, 4, 11–12, 47, 55–67, 78;
examination of classified information by, 46, 48;
oversight of state secrecy by, 4–5, 11–12, 55–79, 98–100, 119–25, 145–47, 202–3;
politicization of, through state secrecy oversight, 4–5, 11, 71, 100, 147;
positive effects of, on state secrecy practices, 73–78;
procedural innovations concerning, 67–73;
unauthorized disclosures screened by, 119–25
Crockett, David, 81, 85
Cross, Harold, 43
Dahl, Robert, 41
Dalglish, Lucy, 240n105
Dana, Samuel, 222n44
Darby, Joseph, 147–48
Davie, William, 23, 25
(p.272) D.C. Circuit Court, 57–59, 62–63, 66, 75–77, 99, 106–7, 218n96
Declassification Commission, 72. See also independent panels or tribunals
declassification of information, 24, 47, 53–54, 72
deep secrets, 74
Deep Throat, 164
Defense Advisory Notice System (DA-Notice System;
Britain), 192
Defense Department, 61, 142
Defense Department Committee on Classified Information (Coolidge Committee), 43, 194
deference on state secrecy:
congressional, 44, 72–73, 96;
judicial, 4, 11–12, 47, 55–67, 78;
war as motivation for, 10, 16
deliberation, as norm of democracy, 74
deliberative process privilege, 220n27
democracy, 1, 2, 38, 41–42, 207n31
Department of Navy v. Egan (1988), 69, 117, 145, 220n29
Devins, Neal, 81, 85
Deyling, Robert, 47
Diodorus Siculus, 190
disinterestedness, in the oversight of state secrecy, 4–5, 39, 68, 71–72, 100–101. See also partisanship
District Court for the District of Columbia, 54, 57–59, 77, 104, 106
District Court for the Eastern District of Washington, 69
District Court of the Eastern District of Michigan, 61
District Court of the North District of California, 63
Douglas, William, 107, 108, 121
Dowd, Maureen, 199
Downie, Leonard, 167
Drake, Thomas, 157
due diligence, 171, 176–77
Dulles, Allen, 192, 195, 213n157
Dunn, John, 2
Dworkin, Terry, 143
Edgar, Harold, 117, 226n35
Edmonds, Sibel, 142, 232n45
Edwards, Harry, 78
18 USC §798(a), 109, 155, 177
Eisenhower, Dwight, 42, 89
Ellis, Thomas, 225n16
Elliston, Frederick, 135, 230n1
Ellsberg, Daniel, 5, 105, 111
Ellsberg v. Mitchell (1983), 66, 77–78
Ellsworth, Oliver, 25
El-Masri v. United States (2007), 66–67
energy, in government, 22, 24–25, 102, 183, 200
English Commonwealth, 17–19, 23
enhanced interrogation, 1, 81
EPA v. Mink (1973), 56
Espionage Act, 40, 46, 105–6, 108, 154–55, 192, 225n11, 225n16, 226n35, 242n37
estimation, of harm from disclosures, 121–25, 131
ethics:
Code of, 230n1;
of reporting, 160–64, 166–70;
of whistleblowing, 127–39
evidence:
pertaining to unauthorized disclosures, 122–25;
required for proceeding with leaking, 162;
required for proceeding with whistleblowing, 131–32;
in whistleblowing cases, 145–46
executive:
accountability of, 3, 25–26;
appointments made by, 189–91;
conduct of, 188–90;
Congress’s relations with, 33, 39, 82–84;
credibility of, 185–91;
criticism of the press by, 195–96;
deception and illegal actions by, 42, 44–47, 96, 116;
decision making in, 189–91;
as locus of state secrecy, 18–19, 25, 29, 34–35, 40–41, 87, 92;
power of, 1, 10, 16;
press’s relations with, 15, 166–67, 193–94, 202–3, 244n71;
private interests of, 185–87;
secrecy employed by, 25;
subordinates in, 14–15, 92, 102, 117, 130, 146, 189;
Tocqueville on, 210n112;
withholding of information by, 31–34, 37, 40–41, 44, 47–48, 73 (see also executive privilege)
executive agents, 35, 40
Executive Order 10290, 41
Executive Order 13233, 55
executive privilege, 12;
arguments for and against, 44, 87, 92–102, 220n29;
constitutionality of, 86;
creation of, 41;
defined, (p.273) 220n27;
expansion, of United States, 34
experts and expertise:
in classification decisions, 9, 57, 66–67, 70–71, 218n96;
oversight of state secrecy by, 39, 52, 67–69, 100;
questions concerning, 68–69
extraordinary rendition, 1, 48, 63–65
F-16s, 141
Family Jewels document, 45
Fatovic, Clement, 241n5
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI):
and espionage, 142;
House investigations of, 89;
identification of disclosure sources by, 156–57;
and terrorist investigations, 148, 151;
warrantless surveillance by, 99;
and Watergate, 45
Federal Circuit Court of Appeals, 144–45, 147
Federation of American Scientists, 54
Feinstein, Dianne, 48
fire alarms, 102, 139
First Amendment:
application to the press of, 45, 106–8;
disclosures justified by, 7, 40, 45;
free speech protected by, 171–73;
limitations of, 49, 103–6, 225n16;
and the press, 166–67, 174–76, 179, 193, 195, 202, 240n106;
protective power of, 103. See also freedom of speech
Fisher, Louis, 61, 90, 220n29
Fisher, Raymond, 64–65
Fitzgerald, Patrick, 106
Fitzgibbon, Alan, 58–59
Fitzgibbon v. CIA (1990), 58–59
Ford, Gerald, 46, 229n89
foreign affairs:
state secrecy required for, 19, 27–28, 30–34, 208n36;
U.S. involvement in, 21, 32, 37–38
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), 71, 158–59, 169
Forsyth, John, 33
Fourth Amendment, 71, 151, 158
Fourth Circuit Court, 66, 104, 105, 160
Franklin, Benjamin, 87–88
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA):
exemptions allowed by, 55–56, 75;
ineffectiveness of, 47, 48, 49–50;
judicial enforcement of, 11, 46, 78–79, 121;
limitations of, 56;
litigation regarding, 54–59, 69–70;
passage of, 44, 55;
requirements of, 75
freedom of speech, 91, 103–4, 171–73. See also First Amendment
Freeman, Ralph, 61–62
Friedrich, Carl, 38
Fuchs, Meredith, 67–68
Gang of Eight, 97–98, 101
Gardels v. CIA (1982), 76
Gargaz, Pierre-André, 20
Gasch, Oliver, 104
generalization, concept of, 81–82
Germany, intelligence oversight arrangements of, 96
Gerry, Elbridge, 25, 28
Gertz, Bill, 125
Gesell, Gerhard, 57
Glazer, Myron, 150
Glazer, Penina, 150
Glomar Explorer (ship), 75–76, 123, 193
Glomar response, 75–76
Goldsmith, Jack, 188–89
Goldwater, Barry, 84
Gonzales, Alberto, 2, 53
Gonzalez, Henry, 89
Gorham, Nathaniel, 23
Goss, Porter, 125, 157
Government Accountability Project (GAP), 144, 148
Graham, Bob, 94
Graham, Katherine, 110
Gravel, Mike, 88–89
graymail, practice of, 154–55
Greene, Harold, 59
Guatemala, 118
Guicciardini, Francesco, 18
Guizot, François, 38
Gun, Katherine, 235n14
Gup, Ted, 193
Gutmann, Amy, 73–74
Halkin v. Helms (1978), 62, 64, 66
Halkin v. Helms (1982), 77
(p.274) Halperin, Morton, 57
Halperin v. CIA (1980), 57–58
Hamilton, Alexander, 21, 25–28, 87
Hamilton, James, 33
Hamilton, Lee, 125, 169
Hand, Learned, 172
Harrington, James, 18
Harrington, Michael, 91
Hatfill, Steven, 116
Hawkins, Michael, 64
Hayden, Michael, 96
Hayden v. NSA (1979), 76, 218n96
Hayne, Robert, 32
Helms, Richard, 96
Henkin, Louis, 45, 120
Hennings, Thomas, 44
Henry, Patrick, 23–24, 26
Hepting v. AT&T (2006), 67
Hersh, Seymour, 45, 162, 229n89
Hess, Stephen, 189
Hirschman, Albert, 190
Hoekstra, Pete, 124
Hoffman, Daniel, 17, 206n14
Horn v. Huddle (2009), 78–79
House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, 46, 89, 118
Howell, David, 27, 36, 209n71, 209n75
Hoyt, Clark, 168
Hug, Procter, 70
Hughes-Ryan Act, 46
Hume, David, 19
Hussein, Saddam, 199
Hutcheson, Francis, 19
Hutchins Commission, 197–98, 201
hydrogen bomb, disclosure of design of, 107, 112
implied powers, 41
in camera review, 46, 56–57, 60–61, 65–66, 70
independent panels or tribunals, 4–5, 12, 98, 100–101, 181–82. See also Declassification Commission
India, 1971 war with Pakistan, 110
indiscipline, regarding the maintenance of secrecy, 4, 25, 89–92
informal retaliation, 148–49, 164
informants, 115, 118
information sharing:
agreements on, 84–85;
between branches, 29, 39, 93, 98–101
Ingham, Samuel, 33
innocuous information, disclosure of seemingly, 56–58, 62–63, 65, 70
In re Grand Jury Subpoena (2005), 107
In re Special Counsel Investigation (2004), 106
inspectors general, 140, 144
Inspectors General Act (IGA), 140–41
Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act (ICWPA), 118, 140–41
intelligence establishment and activities:
congressional access to and oversight of, 46;
creation of, 40, 213n157;
divergence of assessments in, 69–70;
funding of, 54, 211n120
Intelligence Identities Protection Act, 106
Intelligence Oversight Act, 46
Interdepartmental Group on Unauthorized Disclosures of Classified Information (Willard Report), 155
interests, balancing of, 120, 128. See also public interest
internal review, as form of oversight, 52, 68
Internet, publication of leaks on, 178–79
Iran:
ballistic missile threat of, 97;
covert operation against, 160;
espionage against, 112–13
Iran-Contra affair, 9, 46, 54, 55, 80, 85, 96, 241n16
Iran-Contra Committee, 85
Iraq:
Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal, 147–48, 162;
alleged uranium purchase of, 165;
and weapons of mass destruction, 48, 80, 86, 116, 199;
withdrawal from, 9
Iraq War, 9, 187
Iredell, James, 23
Italy, 18
Jabara v. Kelley (1977), 61–62
Jackson, Andrew, 33
Jackson, Robert, 70–71
James, Gene, 134, 135
James I, king of England, 18
Jane’s Defense Weekly (magazine), 105
Japan, ciphers during World War I, 109, 229n89
Jay, John, 21, 29, 186–87
(p.275) Jay Treaty, 31, 32, 33, 187–88
Al-Jazeera (news outlet), 165
Jefferson, Thomas, 208n36, 222n44
Jeppesen Dataplan, 63
Johnson, Loch, 81, 90
Joint Resolution on the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists, 82
Jos, Philip, 150
judicial review. See courts
Justice Department, 53, 82, 99, 106, 123, 142, 145, 157, 160, 191
Kant, Immanuel, 20
Kasza v. Browner (1998), 63, 64
Katz, Alan, 119
Keith case (1972), 66, 78
Keller, Bill, 167, 170, 197, 199
Kent, James, 31–32
Kerr, Richard, 119
Kessler, Glenn, 124–25
Kielbowicz, Richard, 211n127
Kilbourne v. Thompson (1880), 87
Kim, Stephen, 157
King, Rufus, 25
Kiriakou, John, 157
Kissinger, Henry, 110
Kitrosser, Heidi, 17, 49, 90, 94, 101, 112, 121–22
Knight, Hal, 45
Knott, Stephen, 17, 90
Knox, Henry, 21
Koh, Harold, 47, 85, 90, 94
Kollar-Kotelly, Colleen, 159
Kossuth, Lajos, 38
Kreimer, Seth, 79
Kurtz, Howard, 199
Lamberth, Royce, 79
Laski, Harold, 38
Lasswell, Harold, 41
leaks and leaking:
and anonymity, 153–54, 158–70;
arguments in support of, 14;
branch of government as factor in, 88–91;
condoning of, 184;
danger of, 43;
defiance as factor in, 156;
identifying sources of, 156–57;
Internet publication of, 178–79;
legislation pertaining to, 154, 170–79;
misuse of, 158–62;
motives for, 158–61;
overseas publication of, 178;
persistence of, 153–58;
prosecutions for, 154–56;
punishment of, 156;
regulation of, 162, 170–79;
Lee, Wen Ho, 116
legislation:
on leaks, 154, 170–79;
on state secrecy, 81–82, 86, 103–8, 117, 125–26, 195;
on whistleblowing, 140–41, 148–49
Leibowitz, Shamai, 155, 157
Libby, Lewis, 199
Libya, 47, 91
Lichtblau, Eric, 158–59, 161, 169, 196
Lieber, Francis, 34
Lippmann, Walter, 39
Livingston, Robert, 241n2
Los Angeles Times (newspaper), 112–13, 123, 167
Machiavelli, Niccolò, vii
Madison, James, 21–22, 24, 26–28, 32, 37, 187, 222n44
Manning, Bradley, 111, 157
Marbut, David, 211n127
Marchetti, Victor, 104
Marshall, John, 23
Martin, Mike, 138
Martino, Rocco, 165
Mason, George, 25, 28
Mason, Stevens, 33, 187–88
Massing, Michael, 199
Massiter, Cathy, 235n14
Mazzini, Giuseppe, 38
McCarthy, Mary, 155–58
McConnell v. Federal Election Commission (2003), 173
McCubbins, Mathew, 102
McFarlane, Robert, 84–85
McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Commission (1995), 172–73
McKinley, William, 35–36
Meiklejohn, Alexander, 176, 240n106
Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB), 141, 144–45, 147
Miami Herald Publishing Company v. Tornillo (1974), 174
Miceli, Marcia, 143
Miller, Judith, 106, 199
Miller v. Casey (1984), 76
Milton, John, 19
(p.276) MINARET operation, 62–63
Mineta, Norman, 47, 96
Mink, Patsy, 56
Minneapolis Star Tribune (newspaper), 173
Minnow, Martha, 96, 101
MKULTRA project, 58
Mohamed v. Jeppesen Dataplan Inc. (Jeppesen I) [2009], 63–64, 66
Mohamed v. Jeppesen Dataplan Inc. (Jeppesen II) [2010], 63–65, 67
Monroe, James, 187
moral narcissism, 151–52
Morison, Samuel, 105
Morris, Robert, 87–88, 241n2
mosaic theory, 58, 59, 62–63
Moss, John, 44
motives, for leaks and disclosures:
anonymity as obstacle to, 6–7, 86, 115, 165;
conflicts of interest and, 171–76, 199;
factors in, 143, 149–52;
of the press, 169–70;
principle-based, 43, 151, 158;
self-interested, 105, 151, 158–61;
transparency of, 130, 135–38, 165, 167
Moussaoui, Zacarias, 148
Moynihan, Daniel, 84
Muller, Robert, 148
Murtha, John, 169
Nation (newspaper), 35–36
National Federation of Federal Employees v. United States (1988), 104
National Security Act, 58
National Security Agency (NSA):
classification of information by, 52;
creation of, 40;
espionage activities of, 109;
warrantless surveillance by, 2, 48, 53, 62–63, 67, 71, 82, 158–59, 163, 169, 191
National Security Agency Act, 56
National Security Council (NSC), 56
Near, Janet, 143
Near v. Minnesota (1931), 107
Nedham, Marchamont, 18–19
Newsweek (magazine), 91, 159, 161
New York Times (newspaper), 2, 5, 44–45, 48, 103, 115, 117, 118, 123, 156, 158–59, 161, 167–70, 179, 193, 195–97, 199–200
New York Times Company v. Gonzales (2007), 226n22
New York Times Co. v. United States (1971), 107, 121, 220n29
Nicaragua, covert intervention in, 46, 85
Niger, purchase of uranium from, 165
9/11 Commission, 85, 124–25
Ninth Circuit Court, 63–64, 70
Nixon, Richard, 45, 56, 110
nondisclosure agreements, 104
North, Oliver, 96
North Korea, ballistic missile threat of, 97
Novak, Robert, 167
nuclear test, in Alaska, 56
nuclear weapons, 141. See also Iraq: and weapons of mass destruction
Nuncio, Richard, 118
Obama, Barack, and administration:
drone strikes by, 188;
prosecutions of officials by, 48, 157;
protection against retaliation, 233n59;
and state secrecy, 8, 47, 188
O’Connor, William, 141
Office of Censorship, 192
Office of Special Counsel (OSC), 145
Office of Strategic Service (OS), 40
Official Secrets Act (United Kingdom), 154, 195, 235n14
Okrent, Daniel, 168
ombudsmen, 167–68, 196–97
OpenLeaks, 178
Operation Holystone, 229n89
Operation Merlin, 160–61, 200
Oregon, 32, 34
Orman, John, 98
Ottoman Empire, secret mission to, 33
overclassification, 42–43, 45–46, 111–13
oversight and regulation of state secrecy:
adversarial, 95–97;
regarding classification of information, 52–53;
dilemmas concerning, 1, 5, 10, 26, 29–30, 39, 49–50, 53, 74, 83–84, 100, 102, 103, 202–3;
disinterestedness in the conduct of, 4–5, 39, 68, 71–72, 100–101;
by experts, 39, 52, 67–69;
in camera review for, 46, 56–57;
possibility of, for leaks, 162, 170–79;
by the public, 39, 43, 51;
regulatory framework (p.277) for, 3–5, 10–12, 46, 49, 181;
by succeeding administrations, 54–55
Paine, Thomas, 185, 241n2
Pakistan:
1971 war with India, 110;
and nuclear proliferation, 141
Paley, William, 19
Pallitto, Robert, 17, 48, 98
Panama Congress, delegation to, 32, 33
Parks, Wallace, 41
Parsons, Theophilus, 20, 22, 208n45
partisanship:
disruption of, through executive appointments, 189–91;
experts subject to, 100;
peace, open communication as aid to, 20, 38
Pentagon Papers, 5, 44–45, 77, 89, 103, 105, 107, 108, 111, 121, 172, 195, 198, 200, 220n29
Philadelphia Aurora (newspaper), 188
Philippine War, 35–36
Phillippi, Harriet, 75
Phillippi v. CIA (1975), 75–76
Pickering, Timothy, 222n44
Pike Committee, 85
Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, 28–29, 186
Plame, Valerie, 106, 116, 167
Plutarch, 190
political speech, First Amendment value of, 172–74
Polk, James, 33–34, 35
Poole, DeWitt, 38, 39
Posner, Eric, 88, 189–91
Posner, Richard, 226n35
Powell, Lewis, 66, 78
Pozen, David, 17, 52, 67, 78, 88, 90
prepublication review agreements, 104–5
presidency. See executive
President’s Daily Briefing (PDB), 85
press:
abuses of leaking by, 6–7, 194;
accountability of, 114–15;
advocates of, 6–7;
commercial pressures on, 200, 240n106;
competition in, 194, 198–200;
confidential sources of, 46, 106–7, 116, 161, 165, 167–70, 173–76, 226n22, 240n105;
credibility of, 198–99;
criticism of, 195–201;
effects of state secrecy on, 40;
executive’s relations with, 15, 166–67, 193–94, 202–3, 244n71;
First Amendment and, 166–67, 174–76, 179, 193, 195, 202, 240n106;
government influence over, in security matters, 192–93;
legal issues pertinent to, 105–8, 226n35;
motives of, 169–70;
obligations and responsibilities of, 161, 165–67, 174, 180, 191–202;
oversight and filtering by, of leaks and disclosures, 14, 164–67, 184;
oversight by, of state secrecy, 45–46;
prosecution of, 177–78;
and the public interest, 6–7, 165–69;
self-censorship of, 192–94, 242n37;
self-regulation of, 196–98;
whistleblowing to, 134
Price, Richard, 19
Priest, Dana, 157–58
principal secretaries, in early modern England, 17–18
principle of disclosure, Framers view of, 17, 24
prior restraint, 45, 104, 107, 121
private actors, legitimacy of disclosure by, 112–14, 126
probable cause, under Fourth Amendment, 151
Project on Government Oversight (POGO), 144, 148
the public:
attitude of, toward the press, 201;
its means of influencing the presidency, 25–26, 51;
oversight of state secrecy by, 39, 43, 51;
“right to know” of, 43, 161, 163, 165;
skepticism about state secrecy by, 42–43;
support for whistleblowing from, 139–40
public authority, 128–30, 135, 162–64
public defenders, 68–69
public editors, 167–68
public interest:
congressional determination of, 117–19;
disclosures condoned on basis of, 111;
executive’s interest in relation to, 185–86;
judicial determination of, 119–25;
the press and, 6–7, 165–69;
secrecy justified on basis of, 33–34, 37, 43;
whistleblowing predicated on, 128
publicity, 13, 31, 34, 37, 40, 42, 47, 138, 164, 195, 207n29. See also transparency
(p.278) public justification, 77–78
public officials, interests and character of, 186–87
public record, 76
publishers, 107–8, 226n35
Al-Qaeda, 9
racial discrimination, 66
Radford, Charles, 110
Ramsay, David, 25, 209n83
Randolph, Edmund, 23, 25
Raven-Hansen, Peter, 83
Rawle, William, 30
Reagan, Ronald, and administration:
classification of papers of, 55;
Iran-Contra affair, 46, 85, 241n16;
misleading practices of, 141
regulatory capture, 5, 72, 103
regulatory framework, for state secrecy, 3–5, 10–12, 46, 49, 181
Reinsch, Paul, 38, 39
Reno, Janet, 158
reporter’s privilege, 46, 174–76, 226n22
Report on the Commission on the Freedom of the Press (Hutchins Commission), 197–98, 201
Republican Party, 55
retaliation:
character and degree of, 144;
consideration of, 6, 13–14, 133–34;
incidence of, 143, 149;
informal, 148–49, 164;
for leaking, 164;
protection against, 139–49, 233n59;
reforms concerning, 145–48;
varieties of, 147
retransmission, of unauthorized disclosures, 118–19, 225n16
right to know, 43, 161, 163, 165
Risen, James, 158–62, 169, 196–97, 200
Robb, Roger, 62
Robinson, Peter, 150
Rockefeller, Jay, 95, 97–98
Rogers, William, 44, 87
Rome, 17
Roosevelt, Franklin, 40
Roosevelt, Theodore, 37
Root, Elihu, 38
Rosenthal, Andrew, 199–200
Rourke, Francis, 42, 43
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 20
Rowley, Coleen, 148, 151
Rozell, Mark, 17, 31, 81, 85
Rumsfeld, Donald, 8, 147–48
Rumsfeld Commission, 97
Russia:
spying on, 109;
sunken nuclear submarine of, 123
Russo, Anthony, 105
Safe House website, 165
Saint-Pierre, abbé de, 20
Scalia, Antonin, 5, 84
Scarre, Geoffrey, 150
Scheppele, Kim, 96, 218n87
Schlesinger, Arthur, 3, 16–17, 36, 45, 46
Schmidt, Benno, 117, 226n35
Schmitt, Gary, 81, 85, 99
Schoenfeld, Gabriel, 17, 49, 132–33
Schorr, Daniel, 89
Schultz, George, 241n16
Schwartz, Thomas, 102
Second Continental Congress, 20
Secret Journal, 21, 27
secret prisons, 1, 48, 80, 155, 157–58, 163, 193
security clearances, 53, 67–68, 141–42, 145, 159
self-identification, by leakers, 163–64
Senate:
Armed Services Committee, 45;
interests of members of, 186–87;
secrecy employed by, 28–30, 33;
Select Committee on Intelligence, 46, 48
Sentelle, David, 59
separation of powers:
executive privilege grounded in, 44, 87;
oversight function of, 26–27, 39. See also checks and balances
Shafer, Jack, 124, 199
shallow secrecy, 73–76
SHAMROCK operation, 62–63, 64
Shayler, David, 235n14
Shelby, Richard, 94, 155
Sherman, Roger, 28
Sheuer, Michael, 124
shield law, 106
Sidney, Algernon, 19
Silverman, Barry, 70
Slate (online magazine), 124
Slidell, John, 34
smelling committee, 36
Smist, Frank, 44, 81
Smith, Charles, 213n153
(p.279) Snepp, Frank, 104–5
Snepp v. United States (1980), 104–5
Snider, Britt, 80, 86
Snowden, Edward, 240n108
Sofaer, Abraham, 17, 31
sources and methods, protection of, 54, 57, 58
Souter, David, 174
Soviet Union, 42, 109, 141, 229n89
Speech and Debate Clause, 88
Spooner, John, 37, 39
State Department, 40, 69–70, 142
state secrecy:
arguments in support of, 2, 18–24, 30–31;
dangers of, 1, 20, 22–24;
deep, 74;
expansion of, 40, 44;
Framers of the Constitution and, 10–11, 16–36, 205n7;
historical uses of, 17–18;
legislation on, 81–82, 86, 103–8, 117, 125–26;
legitimate uses of, 3–4, 38;
misuse of, 42, 44–47, 98;
need for, 2–3, 19–23, 34;
principle of, 2, 30;
republican theorists on, 18–19, 206n14;
shallow, 73–76;
state secrets privilege, 41, 59–65, 77–79, 142, 145, 160, 188, 220n27
Steele, John, 23
Sterling, Jeffrey, 157, 160–62, 200
Sterling v. Tenet (2005), 66
Stewart, Potter, 56, 107, 220n29, 244n71
Stone, Geoffrey, 17, 49, 129
Story, Joseph, 30–31
St. Paul Pioneer Press (newspaper), 173
subpoena power, congressional, 82, 85
Sunstein, Cass, 119
Supreme Court:
on free speech, 171–73;
on Pentagon Papers, 103;
on state secrecy, 56, 60–61, 66. See also individual cases
Sweden, overture from, 27
Swift, Charles, 68
Tamm, Thomas, 157, 158–61
Tappan, Benjamin, 35, 36
Tazewell, Littleton, 33
Tenet, George, 96
term limits, use of, 54
Terrorist Financing Tracking Program, 117, 167, 169–70, 193
terrorists, suspected, 48, 63
Terrorist Surveillance Program, 158–59
Texas, annexation of, 34, 35
Themistocles, 190
Thompson, Dennis, 2, 53, 73–74, 82, 224n94
Tice, Russell, 159
Time (magazine), 122, 124, 148
tipsters, acting anonymously, 165
Tisdall, Sarah, 235n14
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 210n112, 212n136
Tomlinson, Richard, 235n14
Torricelli, Robert, 118
torture, 63
transparency:
qualified, 51–52;
unconditional, 2, 55;
using courts to further, 71, 79. See also publicity
Transparency Unit website, 165
Treasury Department, 117, 167, 169
Treverton, Gregory, 80
Trujillo, Rafael, 58
Tucker, St. George, 31
Tyler, John, 32, 35
U-2 incident (1960), 42
unauthorized disclosures of classified information:
adjudication of, 120–25, 229n80, 229n89;
benefits of, 5, 183, 184;
branch of government as factor in, 88–91;
as civil disobedience, 6;
condemnation of, 2, 27, 36, 42–43, 47, 49, 117, 163, 164;
condoning of, 90, 108–16, 125–26, 184;
as congressional information source, 85–86, 102;
congressional screening of, 117–19, 133–34;
by Congress members, 89–92, 222n46;
dangers of, 1–2, 6, 49, 108–16, 183–84;
dilemmas concerning, 103, 112–13, 184;
in early U.S. history, 35–36;
evidence pertaining to, 122–25;
harm caused by, 109–10, 115, 121–25, 131;
judicial screening of, 119–25;
justifications of, 13, 113, 182;
legal issues concerning, 13, 103–8, 117, 125–26, 195;
legitimacy of private actors’ role in, 112–14, 126;
misuse of, 116;
(p.280) motives for, 6–7, 43, 72, 86, 105;
persistence of, 182–83;
prosecutions stemming from, 48–49, 211n127;
punishment of, 111–12;
retransmission of, 118–19, 225n16;
scope and scale of, 132;
United States v. AT&T (1977), 86, 99
United States v. Marchetti (1972), 104
United States v. Morison (1988), 105
United States v. Progressive (1979), 107, 121, 229n80
United States v. Reynolds (1953), 41, 59–61, 65, 66
United States v. Rosen (2006), 225n16
United States v. Russo (1973), 105
United States v. Sterling (2011), 226n22
United States v. United States Dist. Court (1972), 66, 78
“unruly contest,” between executive and press, 15, 167, 202–3, 244n71
Urbina, Ricardo, 54
USA Today (newspaper), 124
usurpation, of political power, 114
Van Sickle, Frederick, 69–70
Vaughn, Robert, 148
Vaughn index, 75, 77
Vaughn v. Rosen (1973), 75
Vermeule, Adrian, 88, 189–91
Vietnam War, 44–45
Village Voice (newspaper), 89
Vinson, Fred, 60
Von Holst, Hermann, 34
Walker, Clement, 19
Wall Street Journal (newspaper), 165, 170
Walsh, Lawrence, 215n4
warrantless surveillance, 1, 48, 53, 61–63, 67, 71, 77, 81, 82, 95, 97–99, 158–59, 163, 169, 191
Warren, Robert, 107, 122
Washington, George, 21, 31, 188, 241n2
Washington Herald Tribune (newspaper), 118
Washington Post (newspaper), 2, 124–25, 148, 155–57, 167–68, 179, 193, 195, 196, 199–200
Washington Times (newspaper), 124–25
Watergate scandal, 45
Weatherhead v. United States (1998), 69–70
Weaver, William, 17, 48, 98
Weber, Max, 42, 47
Webster, Daniel, 33
Weissman v. CIA (1974), 57
Wells, Christina, 52
Wheeler, Burton, 91, 118
Whistleblower Protection Act, 140, 144
whistleblowers and whistleblowing, 127–52;
conditions for, 127–39;
condoning of, 184;
Congress and, 118, 133–34, 140;
consequences of, 128;
determination of wrongdoing prior to, 127–30, 135–38, 146;
disincentives for, 6, 13–14, 138–44, 150;
ethics and, 230n1;
evidence in cases of, 145–46;
evidence required for proceeding with, 131–32;
internal channels for, 132–33, 141;
justification of, 13, 127–39;
leaking compared to, 162;
legal issues concerning, 140–41, 148–49;
motives of, 130, 135–38, 143, 149–52;
in national security cases, 131–32, 135, 137–49;
obligations of, as employee, 127–28;
ordinary, 135, 140, 143;
potential and actual cases of, 144;
predicaments concerning, 138, 139;
the press as outlet for, 134;
retaliation against, 6, 13–14, 133, 138–49;
shared interest as basis for, 128;
in spite of obstacles and dangers, 149–52;
by subordinates, 129–30, 132, 141–43. See also anonymity of disclosures
White, Byron, 108, 121, 173
Widgery, William, 23
Wiggins, James, 43
WikiLeaks, 1, 3, 111, 165, 178–79, 195
Wilkey, Malcolm, 57–58
Willard Report, 155, 156
Willoughby, William, 210n111
Wilson, James, 22–23, 25, 28, 29, 88
Wilson, Joseph, 106
Wilson, Woodrow, 37, 38, 40
Woodward, Bob, 164
World War I, 192
World War I, 91, 109, 118, 192, 229n89
(p.281) Wright, Lloyd, 43
Wright, Peter, 235n14;
Spycatcher, 178
Wright, Quincy, 38, 39
wrongdoing:
gross, 6, 126, 137–40, 149, 163, 164, 183;
as justification for unauthorized disclosures, 5, 6, 12–14, 48, 183–84;
prima facie, 130–32, 135–36, 163;
self-censorship regarding, 131–32, 192–94;
suspected, 137–39, 149, 163, 183, 185, 190, 194;
whistleblowers’ obligation to assess, 127–30, 135–38
Wyden, Ron, 48
Xanthippus, 190
Yoo, John, 67, 72
Zablocki, Clement, 91