This chapter discusses the decision of Friedrich I, the Duke of Württemberg, to establish a town for religious refugees at the extreme northern edge of the Black Forest, in 1598. He hoped to attract the beleaguered Protestants of Austria, where the Counter-Reformation was in full vigor. Other European princes had done the same from time to time since the beginning of the Reformation, but Friedrich was the first to make the city itself a physical emblem of a Protestant sanctuary. The result was the first formally planned city of refuge, which he named Freudenstadt, which literally means “city of joy.” As designer of Freudenstadt, Duke Friedrich appointed Heinrich Schickhardt (1558–1635), one of the most prolific and amiable architects of the German Renaissance.
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