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The Origin of the JewsThe Quest for Roots in a Rootless Age$

Steven Weitzman

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780691174600

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: May 2018

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691174600.001.0001

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(p.383) Index

(p.383) Index

Source:
The Origin of the Jews
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Aaron, 35, 37, 294, 296
Abraham:
as an Amorite nomad, 156;
descendants of, 2, 37, 45, 47;
etymology of in Genesis, 74;
evolutionary mutation, as a moment of, 156;
the Habiru and, 84;
as a “Hebrew” in Genesis, 79;
place of origin of, 83, 89;
story of, historical reality of, 2, 7, 113, 136–37, 154–55;
wanderings of, 59, 79
Abraham, Karl, 187
Abu El-Haj, Nadia, 307–14, 316
acculturation, 208
Achaemenid Empire, 124–25, 127, 133. See also Persia
Achior, 216
Adar, Zvi, 265
Aharoni, Yohanan, 161, 249
Akhenaten (king of Egypt; also known as Amenhotep IV), 79, 156, 180, 182, 184–87, 191–201
Albright, William Foxwell:
Beth Shemesh expedition, contribution to, 154, 158;
biblical archaeology, shaping of, 152, 154–55;
demise of paradigm of, 161, 165;
discontinuity between Canaan and Israel, 167;
evolutionary perspective of, 173;
on Freud’s work, 175;
organismic approach of, 155;
racial theories and ethnogenesis, positioned at transition point in, 158–60, 166, 172;
From the Stone Age to Christianity, 155–58
Alexander the Great (king of Macedon), 103, 208, 212–13, 228
Alinei, Mario, 72
Alt, Albrecht, 162
Amarna:
capital city/court at, 79, 180, 184–86, 193;
epidemic at the end of the age of, 199;
letters, 79–84, 87–90, 95, 143;
revolution, 195
Amichai, Yehuda, 274
Ampère, André-Marie, 146
Ancestry.com, 29–30, 323
Anderson, Benedict, 250
Andree, Richard, 121
anthropology:
genealogical research and constructivist, 47–53;
genetics, skepticism regarding, 306–14;
genetics and, potential for bridging perspectives of, 314–16;
search for origins, rejection of, 12
Antiochus IV (king of the Seleucid Empire), 216–17, 231–33, 303
anti-Semitism, 64, 66, 189, 229, 322
arborescent thought, 54–55, 311. See also tree model
archaeology:
biblical (see biblical archaeology);
from developmentalist thinking to ethnogenesis, 145–47;
earliest history of the Israelites illuminated by, 139–42;
ethnogenesis (see ethnogenesis);
Israeli, political dimensions of, 18;
processual and postprocessual, 164–65, 172;
psychoanalysis as a kind of, 176;
Tel Beth Shemesh as case study (see Tel Beth Shemesh)
Arendt, Hannah, 1
Aristobulus the Philhellene, 211
Armstrong, John, 258
Arnold, Matthew, 209
Aryans:
India as the homeland of, 129;
“Mediterranean race” as alternative to, 149–50;
mythological reconstruction of, superior capacities seen in, 67, 71–72, 85–88;
Persians, identification with, 127–33
Ashkenazic Genome Consortium, 300
Ashkenazic Jews, 254–56, 299–302
Ashkenazic Levites, 301, 305
Assmann, Aleida, 197
Assmann, Jan, 177, 190–202
Assyria, 3, 85, 102, 143–44, 303 (p.384)
atavism, 120–21
Aten (sun god), 180, 184, 186, 195
Audia, Pino, 257
Babylonian exile, 35, 104, 107, 114–15, 121–22, 127, 136–37, 140, 183
Babylonian Talmud, 37, 243–44
Baden, Joel, 134
Baer, Yitzhak, 12, 249
Baron, Salo, 175, 185
Bartal, Israel, 252, 255
Barth, Fredrik, 47
Barthes, Roland, 10
Baudrillard, Jean, 10
Baumgarten, Albert, 230–32, 234, 237
Beardsley, Monroe, 10
Bedouin, 67–68, 84–85, 113, 162, 305. See also nomads/nomadism
Beginnings: Intention and Method (Said), 18–19
Behar, Doron, 298–99, 301–2, 305
Beider, Alexander, 39
Belges, Jean Lemaire de, 76
Bengston, John, 72
Bernays, Jacob, 230
Bernstein, Richard, 191
Berossus, 210
Beth Shemesh. See Tel Beth Shemesh
Bhabha, Homi, 222, 242–43
Bible, the:
Book of Genesis (see Genesis, Book of);
developmental process portrayed in, 102;
etymologies in, 73–74;
genealogical inquiry and, 28–36;
“Hebrew” in, 78–79, 94–95;
as a historical source, doubts about, 6–7;
modern scholarship and the search for the origin of the Jews, 26;
Samson story in, 143, 169;
Wellhausen on 1–2 Chronicles, 116
biblical archaeology:
Albright as personification of, 154–55;
emergence of, 152–53;
ethnogenesis and (see ethnogenesis);
Israeli, 160–61. See also archaeology
biblical minimalism, 136–37
Bickerman, Elias, 214, 230–39, 244–46
Bildung, concept of, 226–29, 231–40
biological approaches to the origin of the Jews, 280–93. See also population genetics; race
Blanchot, Maurice, 10, 91
Bloch, Marc, 10, 13
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 105, 120, 280–81
Boas, Franz, 159, 283–84, 315
Bodin, Jean, 77
Bölsche, Wilhelm, 109
Bopp, Franz, 66
Bouquet, Mary, 32
Boyarin, Daniel, 58–59, 241–44
Boyarin, Jonathan, 58–59
Bradman, Neil, 44
Breasted, James Henry, 185
Bronn, H. G., 117
Bunimovitz, Shlomo, 142, 144–47, 152, 154, 159–61, 164–72
Butler, Eliza, 227
Butler, Judith, 10
Cambyses (king of Persia), 201
Camden, William, 75–77
Canaan/Canaanites:
Albright’s representation of, 157–59;
culture of and Israelite culture, break/connection between, 140, 142, 156–57, 160–61, 164, 166–67, 265;
desertization and migration into, 69;
Egypt and, 184;
Greek culture infused into, 149;
the Habiru in, 81–85, 87, 162;
indigenous population of, emergence of the Israelites from, 145–46, 168;
Israelite conquest, historical status of, 2, 136, 140–41, 145, 161–62, 182;
the Israelites and, 82–83, 90–91, 99, 162, 168, 172–73;
language of, Hebrew and, 70, 79–81;
Mediterranean race in, 151;
the Philistines in, 168–71;
pork consumption, 170, 172;
Wellhausen on the dislodging of the Jews from, 114, 121
Carmi, Shai, 300
Carroll, David, 204
Carter, Howard, 185
Cavalli-Sforza, Luca, 288, 292, 309
Chabas, Francois, 88 (p.385)
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 132
Champollion, Jean-François, 185
Christianity, origin of Judaism in interactions with, 241–44
Clearchus, 129
Cleopatra VII, 211
Cohanim (the priestly caste;
Cohen as singular form), 294–98
Cohen, Rose Lerer, 39
Cohen Modal Haplotype, 296–98, 311–12
Collingwood, R. G., 139
Collins, Francis Sellers, 276
Confucius, 32
constructivist approach, 47, 51–53;
the nation, invention of, 250–51, 256–58;
population genetics as an alternative to, 275;
primordialism versus, 258–68, 271–72
conversion:
act of, 215–16, 220–21;
polygenesis and Sand’s argument regarding, 252–55
crypto-Jews, 48–53
crypto-Protestants, 50–51
Cyrus the Great (emperor of Persia), 102–3, 124, 131
Darius III (king of Persia), 210
Darwin, Charles:
“descent with modification,” ethnogenesis as, 146;
evolution, impact of the theory of, 110–11, 135;
living fossils, persistence of, 119, 121;
natural versus artificial selection, 116–17;
Origin of Species, 71, 110–12, 116–17;
origins, interest in, 9, 11, 26;
primordial beginning, disregard of, 112–13;
progress and maladaptation in the theory of, 113–15;
Wellhausen and, 109–12, 120
David, King, 31–34, 37–38, 41–45, 47
DavidDuke.com, 307
Davidic Dynasty, 31, 42
Davies, Philip, 136–37
Davis, Dena, 310
Dawisha, Adeed, 268
Defonseca, Misha, 39–41, 51
degeneration, 105–6, 120, 138, 141, 146
Deleuze, Gilles, 54–55, 57, 93
Delitzsch, Franz, 110
Delitzsch, Friedrich, 83–85
Derrida, Jacques, 22, 91, 204, 319
developmental theories:
Bildung and, 237;
degeneration, 105–6, 114–15, 120;
distinction between biblical Israelites/later Jews and, 101–6;
the Documentary Hypothesis as account of Jewish origins, 106–20, 132–35 (see also Wellhausen, Julius);
ethnogenesis as, 148–52;
evolution, 33, 109–20;
evolutionary stuckness of the Jews, 120–21;
evolving beyond, 133–38;
metaphor, reliance on, 319;
“organismic” approach to history as, 155–56;
postexilic/ Persian period as turning point, 122–33
Dever, William, 145, 147, 161
de Wael, Monique, 40. See also Defonseca, Misha
de Wette, Wilhelm, 104–6, 108–9, 122–23
Diez, Friedrich, 76
Dinur, Ben-Zion, 263–67, 269
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 245
DNA:
genealogical research and, 43–44, 279;
genetic diversification and, 277–79;
methodological advances in reading, 293;
mitochondrial, 301–2
Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 287
Documentary Hypothesis, 106–20, 132–35, 137–38. See also Wellhausen, Julius
Dohm, Christian Wilhelm von, 233
Droysen, J. G., 212–14, 222, 226–30, 239
Dubnow, Simon, 249
Dunlop, Douglas Morton, 254
Dunn, Leslie Clarence, 288, 291
Durkheim, Émile, 9–10
education:
Bildung, concept of, 226–29, 231–40;
creation of national consciousness through, 263–67, 269;
Hellenization and, 225–26
Egorova, Yulia, 309 (p.386)
Egypt/ Egyptians:
Akhenaten’s heresy (see Akhenaten);
Amarna letters discovered in, 79 (see also Amarna, letters);
Elephantine papyri discovered in, 126;
genealogy in Genesis and, 75;
the Habiru as problem for, 82;
Hellenization and, 224, 234;
Israelite culture and, 184;
Manetho’s history of, 194–95;
“Mediterranean race” and, 149;
monotheism in, 156, 180, 182, 190 (see also Akhenaten);
Moses as, Freud’s argument for, 175, 178, 180–82, 184–85, 187, 202;
offenses against the gods in, 201;
the Persians and, 128;
Ptolemaic Kingdom in following Alexander’s death, 210;
Semitic invaders, dynasty displaced by, 156
Egyptology/Egyptologists:
Assman, 177, 190–202;
Breasted, 185;
Chabas, 88;
Manetho as source for, 194;
most exciting period of, 184–85;
Petrie, 139–41, 185, 282
Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried, 104, 122–23
Einsiedler, David, 43, 46
Elephantine papyri, 126–27
Elhaik, Eran, 299
endogamy, 145, 276, 278, 289
epigenetics, 202–3
Erasmus, 75
Erotasthenes, 211
Esau, 74, 79
ethnogenesis:
conception and history of the term, 145–47;
decline of racial, 152–60;
developments in the shift from Evans/ Mackenzie to Bunimovitz/ Leiderman approach, 161–65;
new paradigm of, 160, 165–68, 172–73;
primordialism and, 258;
as racial evolution, 148–52, 188
etymology:
genealogy and, 73–74, 77–78;
of “Hebrew,” 78–79;
“Hebrew” and “Habiru,” relation of, 88–90, 93–95, 97–99;
history of premodern, 73–76;
of “Jew,” 95–99;
of “Judaism,” 211–12;
marginalization of, Saussure and, 92–93;
modern, 76–77;
origin of nations and, 73–78;
roots of the Jews, as a method of searching for, 27, 70–73, 99–100. See also language and linguistics; paleolinguistics
Eusebius, 105
Evans, Arthur, 148–51, 158, 188, 204
Evans, Elida, 174, 177
evolution, theory of, 33, 109–21, 132, 135–36. See also Darwin, Charles
Exodus (the event/story), 2, 157, 184, 193, 195–96, 201, 252
Ezra, 103, 116, 124–25, 302
Faust, Avraham, 171
Feldman, Marc, 303–4
Finkelstein, Israel, 171
Fischel, Henry, 214, 229
Fishberg, Maurice, 121, 283–84
foreigners:
mechanism of transfer for qualities of, 207–8;
role of in origin stories, 208–9
Foucault, Michel, 20, 22, 55–61, 93
Frei, Peter, 125
Freud, Julius, 187
Freud, Sigmund:
antithetical approaches to origins, affinity to, 203–6;
credibility of his argument, assessment of, 183–90;
Moses and Monotheism, 174–85, 187–93, 196–97, 201–2, 204–5;
origin of the Jews, theory of, 173–77;
postmodernism and, 204–5;
psychohistory of the Jews, 177–83;
rehabilitation of his approach, attempt at, 190–202;
Totem and Taboo, 176, 178–81, 191, 205
Fries, Jakob Friedrich, 120
From the Stone Age to Christianity (Albright), 155–58
Fullwiley, Duana, 309
Funkenstein, Amos, 12–13, 21, 240
Galton, Francis, 140, 281–82
Gamaliel the Elder, 42
Garstang, John, 161
Gellner, Ernest, 250, 258, 270–71
Genealogists, Board for Certification of, 38
genealogy:
biblical roots, the search for, 28–32;
constructivist approach toward, 46–54;
etymology and, 73–74, 77–78;
Foucault’s distinguished from (p.387) conventional, 56–57;
inadequacy of for exploring the origin of the Jews, 45–46;
limits and lessons from, 61–62;
modern genealogical research, 29–32, 34–35;
popularity of for Jews, 28, 60;
as postmodernist antigenealogy, 54–61, 93;
reliable vs. unreliable, 28;
roots of the Jews, as a method of searching for, 27, 32–33;
as sleuthing a path to the past, 33–46;
thought, as a mode of, 32–33, 327–28;
unreliability of biblical, ancient, and medieval, 29–30, 36–38
genealogical bewilderment, 323
Genesis, Book of:
Darwin’s impact on, 110–11;
origin account in, 2;
scholarly doubts about origin account in, 2–3, 6–7. See also Abraham; Jacob; Joseph; Judah; Noah
genetics, insight into the origin of the Jews from. See population genetics
Geni.com, 29
genomics, 275–76
George, Leopold, 109
Gobineau, Joseph Arthur de, 130
Goldschmidt, Elisabeth, 290–91
Goldstein, David, 294, 311
Gould, Stephen Jay, 136
Graetz, Heinrich, 12, 249
Graf, K. H., 110
Grant, Elihu, 147, 152–54, 157–58, 167, 169
Greeks. See Hellenism
Greenberg, Moshe, 84
Grimm, Jacob, 85
Grosby, Steven, 259
Guattari, Félix, 54–55, 57, 93
Günther, Hans F. K., 284, 286
Gurevitch, Joseph, 290–91
Habiru, the:
Hebrews and, hypothesis connecting, 81–91, 97;
prehistory of the Jews and, 72;
reference to in prebiblical sources, 79–80;
as the underclass of Canaanite society, 162
Halbwachs, Maurice, 47, 193, 196, 201
Halevi, Yehuda, 255
Hall, John, 270
Hammer, Michael, 294, 296–97
Hammerschlag, Sarah, 322
Ha-Sandlar, Yohanan, 42–43
Hastings, Adrian, 258
“Hebrew”:
“Habiru” and, identification of, 81–82, 93–95, 97–99;
as linguistic trace of early Israelites’ history, 77;
meaning today and in the Bible, difference between, 78
Hebrews:
the Habiru and, hypothesis connecting, 81–91, 97–99;
modern Jews and biblical, distinction between, 101–6;
prehistory of, 78–91
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 110, 120, 158, 213, 227
Heine, Heinrich, 209
Heliodorus, 216
Hellenism/Hellenization:
Bildung and, the formative age of Judaism and analogy between, 237–40;
as “cross-fertilization,” 213, 242;
Hebraism and, contrast drawn between, 209;
Judean and Greek cultures, fusion of, 211–12;
learning from the Greeks, Germanic culture/education and, 223–36;
transformation from Judean ethnicity to Jewish religious identity and, 208–9, 215–23, 240
Hellenistic Age:
Akhenaten’s reign resurfacing in, 195–98;
Droysen’s account of, 212–14, 226, 230, 239;
Egyptian perception of the Jews in, 194;
Hebrew Bible composed in, 136;
idea of, hybridity and, 210–14, 221–22;
Judeans of, distinction between Israelites, Jews, and, 138;
postcolonialism and reassessment of, 243;
transition to Judaism in, 123, 208, 223
Hemings, Sally, 310
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 129, 135
Herodotus, 201, 217
Hesse, Brian, 170
Hirszfeld, Hannah, 286
Hirszfeld, Ludwik, 286
Hitler, Adolf, 132, 185, 284
Hobsbawm, Eric, 251, 260–62, 270–71
Homer, 75, 220
Hoover, Herbert, 185
Hordes, Stanley, 49–52, 54, 56–57, 313
(p.388) Human Genome Project, 276, 278, 293
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 226–28
hybridity:
Bildung and, 235–36;
from Christian-Jewish interaction, 241–44;
education in the Hellenistic world and, 223–26;
fusion of Judean and Greek identity, 215;
the Hellenistic world and, 221–22;
as illuminating scholarly more than Jewish identity, 240;
postcolonial conception of, 242–43;
recent turn away from, 222–23
Hyksos, the, 184, 194–95, 197
India, 129
indigenousness, 17–18
International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies, 28
International Institute for Jewish Genealogy, 34
invented tradition, 251, 261–62
invention:
Apple computer, “garage legend” of the origin of, 257;
constructivism and primordialism, choosing between, 268–73;
of the Jewish “people,” criticisms of Sand’s argument for, 251–57;
of the Jewish “people,” Sand’s argument for, 247–50;
limits of, 260–67;
modern and ancient origin accounts as, 245–46;
mythmaking, origin accounts of the Jews as, 246–48;
of the nation, contemporary arguments against, 258–73;
of the nation, contemporary arguments for, 250–51, 256–58;
popularity of Sand’s argument, 248
Isidore of Seville, 73–74, 76–77, 79
Isocrates, 217
Israel:
biblical usage of “Israel” and “Hebrew,” 79;
as center of Jewish genetic study, 290–91;
education and national consciousness in, 263–67, 269;
establishment of the State of, 16–17;
limits to invention in, 261–62;
primordialism vs. constructivism in, political views and, 271–72
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 17–19
Israelites:
earliest history of illuminated by archaeology (see archaeology);
ethnogenesis of, 145–47;
Jews and, distinction between, 101–6
iudaios/iudaioi, 74, 95–99, 105, 129, 215, 245
Jablon, Rachel, 52
Jacob, 2, 45, 74, 79, 84, 113
Jacobs, Joseph, 281
James, William, 10
Jason of Cyrene, 225
Jefferson, Randolph, 310
Jefferson, Thomas, 310
Jelliffe, Smith Ely, 174, 177
Jenkins, Trefor, 312
“Jew”:
derogatory connotations of, 78;
etymology and meaning of, 95–99;
“Judean” and, debate over relationship of, 96–99
Jewish peoplehood, 253–54, 256, 266
“Jewish question,” 15–16
Jews:
biblical Israelites/Hebrews and, development linking, 106–10 (see also developmental theories);
biblical Israelites/ Hebrews and, distinction between, 101–6;
biological histories of, Darwin and, 111;
creation of national consciousness, educational curriculum and, 263–67;
defining, difficulties of, 7–8;
nomadic and plunderous character, the Habiru and depictions of, 83–84;
premodern nationalism, as an example of, 259;
rootless/wandering, 83, 322
Jobs, Steve, 257
Jones, Ernest, 175, 190
Jones, William, 85
Joseph, 184, 195, 303
Joseph II (Holy Roman Emperor), 233–34
Josephus, Flavius:
ancestry—his own and that of others, 36;
Hellenization, as source on, 225, 244;
Jews, change in nomenclature for, 105;
Manetho, as source on, 194–95;
on the Samaritans, 303, 305
Judah:
biblical figure of, 2;
etymology of “Jew” and, 96;
etymology of “Judaism” and, 211;
kingdom/territory of, (p.389) 35, 41, 78, 102, 123–24, 141–44;
Lion of, 41–42;
tribe of, 2, 78, 102, 105, 123, 303
Judah Loew the Elder, 43
Judaism:
from ascribed to achieved status, Hellenization and transformation, 215–23;
as collective personality, 183;
founder(s) of, 103;
postbiblical and ancient Israel, antidevelopmentalist trend regarding, 136–38;
postexilic/ Persian period as turning point in development of, 122–33
“Judaism,” 211–12
Julian the Apostate (emperor of Rome), 241
Justi, Ferdinand, 131
Karlin, Sam, 292
Katz, Jacob, 265
Kaufmann, Yehezkiel, 134
Kedourie, Elie, 270
Kenyon, Kathleen, 161
Khazar theory, 254–56, 299, 320
Kirsh, Nurit, 291
Klein, Melanie, 187
Koestler, Arthur, 255
Korn, Selig, 129
Kossovitch, Nicholas, 285–86
Kuenen, Abraham, 104
Kuhn, Thomas, 315
Kulanu, 313
Kurzweil, Arthur, 34
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 105
Lamarckian evolutionary theory, 189–90, 202–3
Langin-Hooper, Stephanie, 222
language and linguistics:
genealogical thinking and, 33;
“Jew,” meaning of, 95–99;
the Jews and their ancestors, linguistics as a way to connect, 70;
linguistic diversification, geographical separation and, 277;
object of study in, Saussure on, 92;
Semitic, 64–69;
synchronic analysis, 92–100. See also etymology; paleolinguistics
Lavi, Orit, 39
Leclerc, Georges-Louis, Comte de Buffon, 105
Lemaître, Georges, 11
Lemba, the, 297, 311–13
Lemche, Niels Peter, 136
Lencz, Todd, 300
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 287
Levites, 181, 301. See also Ashkenazic Levites
Lieberman, Saul, 214
linguistic paleontology. See paleolinguistics
linguistics. See language and linguistics
Lombroso, Cesare, 282
Luria, Chaim, 42
Maccabean Revolt, 211–12, 216, 224, 231, 236
Maccabees, the:
Bildung embodied by, 234, 237;
Greek, books of composed in or translated into, 225;
Greek practices adopted by the descendants of, 211;
Hasmoneans as descendants of, 217;
Spartans, forgery of kinship relations to promote a military alliance with, 36–37, 47
Maciejewski, Franz, 187
Mackenzie, Duncan, 147–55, 158–60, 166, 169
Maharal of Prague, 31
Mairs, Rachel, 222
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 9–10
Manetho, 194–96, 201, 210
Marcuse, Max, 315
Marrou, Henri-Irénée, 223
Massad, Joseph, 19
McCutcheon, Russell, 23
Mendel, David, 213
Mendel, Gregor, 285
Mendelssohn, Moses, 229, 233
Mendenhall, George, 162–65
Mendheim, Marie, 213
Mengele, Josef, 286
Menippus, 210–11
Merneptah Stele, 139
(p.390) methods:
etymology (see etymology);
genealogical, change from ancient to modern, 36–46;
genealogy woven into some, 33;
genetic studies, revolution in, 292–93;
paleolinguistics (see paleolinguistics);
Petrie’s contribution to archaeological, 140;
psychoanalysis, 176 (see also psychoanalysis);
source criticism, 106–9, 133–38;
synchronic analysis, 92–100
Meyer, Eduard, 130–32, 182
Michaelis, Johann David, 104
Midianites, 181–82
mikveh, origin of, 219–20
Milton, John, 245
Momigliano, Arnaldo, 213–14
Momigliano, Nicoletta, 152
monotheism, 156–57, 180, 182, 190, 192–93
Montagu, Ashley, 287–88
Montaigne, Michel de, 75
Morant, Geoffrey, 283–84
Morris, Benny, 252
Moses:
Assmann’s view of, 191–93, 196;
biblical, 218–19;
Freud’s account of, 175, 178, 180–85, 187, 196;
genealogical tampering and, 29–30, 47;
“Hebrew slaves,” on how to treat, 94;
as legend/myth vs. real figure, 136–37, 155–56;
in Manetho’s narrative, 195–96;
Philo’s biography of, 225;
Tacitus on, 3
Moses and Monotheism (Freud), 174–85, 187–93, 196–97, 201–2, 204–5
Motulsky, Arno, 306–7
Mourant, Arthur, 290
Muir, John, 117–18
Müller, Max, 71, 85–86
Nash, Catherine, 57, 60
nation, the:
constructivism and primordialism, choosing between, 268–73;
constructivist arguments for the invention of, 250–51, 256–58;
constructivist arguments versus primordialism, 258–68
Nazis/Nazism:
Aryan myth and, 87;
Bickerman and, 230–31;
constructivists and, 269–70;
in Defonseca story, 39–40;
“final solution” of, 16;
genetic research and, 275, 280, 286–87, 309;
racialized thinking behind the ideology of, 69, 159, 275, 284–87, 291
Neander, August, 213
Nehemiah, 103, 125
Neulander, Judith, 50–54, 57, 145, 313
Nicholas I (tsar of Russia), 232
Nicholas of Damascus, 36
Niebuhr, Carsten, 129
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 10, 56, 317, 327
Nisbet, Robert, 101, 136, 319
Noah:
descendants of, 76–77, 218–19;
etymology of in Genesis, 74;
sons of, 36, 64, 73, 75–77, 111
nomads/nomadism:
Abraham and, 156;
Ashkenazic Jews as descended from, 254, 305;
Bedouin, 67–68, 84–85, 113, 162, 305;
Habiru/Jews as, 83–84, 88;
Israelites as, 157, 162–63, 168, 171;
Jews as, 98;
rootless Jew living as, 322
Nordau, Max, 120
Nork, Friedrich. See Korn, Selig
Noth, Martin, 162
Origin of Species (Darwin), 71, 110–12, 116–17
origin/origins:
ambiguities in the concept of, 318–19;
ancient and modern accounts, comparison of, 245–46;
beginning and, opposition between, 18–19;
biological approaches, 280–93;
Darwin’s theory, impact of, 110–11;
denaturalization of, 173;
Freud’s affinity to conflicting approaches to, 203–6;
indifference to, 322–23;
intellectual aversion to the search for, 12–14;
invention of (see invention);
of the Israelites (see archaeology);
meaning of, difficulty of pinpointing, 8–9;
modern scholarship and, 25–26;
motivations to search for, 323–25;
objective and subjective approach to, 14;
opposition to search for, 4–5, 9–13, 22–23, 100;
political dimensions of the search for, 14–21;
(p.391) population genetics and (see population genetics);
psychoanalysis as alternative account of (see psychoanalysis);
root as a metaphor for, 26–27 (see also roots);
scholarly search for as zero-sum game, 327;
as subjective belief, 46–47;
of this book, 5–6, 23–24
Osarsiph, 194–95, 200–201
Ostrer, Harry, 44, 300
paleolinguistics:
dismissals of, 91;
etymology, prehistory of the Israelites and, 70–73;
the Jews and their ancestors, connecting, 70;
origin of, 71–72;
prehistory of the Hebrews, applied to, 78–91;
turn from, Saussure’s critique and implications of the, 91–100
paleopsychology, 177, 202. See also psychoanalysis
Palestinians:
Jews, conflict with, 17–18, 153, 324;
origin of the Jews, interest in, 21, 324
Parfitt, Tudor, 311
Paulhan, Jean, 91
Peasant Revolt theory, 171
peoplehood, Jewish, 253–54, 256, 266
Persia:
Aryans, as homeland of, 15, 85, 127–31;
Judaism and, 130–33;
rule of Judea following defeat of Babylon, 102–4, 122–28 (see also postexilic period)
Persian period. See postexilic period
Petrie, William Matthew Flinders, 139–41, 185, 282
Pe’er, Itzik, 300
Philistines:
Aegean peoples, as descendants of, 151;
as catalyst for Canaanites to become Israelites, 168–71;
Grant’s racial language describing, 158;
“Hebrew,” use of the term by, 78, 94;
Israelites and, Shephelah as zone of conflict between, 143–44;
Mackenzie’s work on, 148–49;
Samson’s killing of, 143
Philo of Alexandria, 218–19, 225, 259
Pictet, Adolphe, 71, 85, 91–92, 204
Pollack, Abraham, 254
polygenesis, 252
population genetics:
biological approaches to the origin of the Jews as prehistory of, 280–93;
criticisms of, 305–14;
evidence of Jewish lineage from genetic research, 294–305;
genetic history, a crash course in, 275–79;
genetic study of Jewish origins, resistance to, 280;
methodological revolution in, 292–93;
as the new primordialism, 274–75;
origin of the Jews, genetic history and, 279;
perspectives of geneticists and anthropologists, potential for bridging, 314–16;
race science and, 289–91
pork, consumption/avoidance of, 170–72
postexilic period:
Jewish origin in, idea of, 103;
transition from Israel to Judaism, as Wellhausen’s focus for, 116, 122–34
postmodernism:
as antigenealogy, 54–61, 93;
Freud and, 204–5;
origins, rejection of, 5, 22–23, 54, 319
postprocessualism, 164–65, 172
prehistory:
discovery of, paleontology and, 63–64;
etymological reasoning as research into, 70–72 (see also etymology);
of the Hebrews, 78–91;
of the Jews, linguistic roots and, 72–73, 99–100;
population genetics as research into, 274–75 (see also population genetics);
Semitic ancestors of the Jews in, searching for, 64–70
primordialism:
constructivism and, choosing between, 268–73;
constructivism versus, 258–68;
elements of in Zionism, 269;
population genetics as the new, 274–75 (see also population genetics)
Prolegomena to the History of Israel (Wellhausen), 113, 115–16
psychoanalysis:
credibility of Freud’s psychohistory of the Jews, 183–90;
etiological inquiry, as a mode of, 174;
Freud’s account of the origin of the Jews based on, 173–77;
method of, 176;
neuroscience and, 202–3;
rehabilitation of Freud’s approach, attempt at, 190–202
(p.392) psychohistory, 174, 190, 202. See also Freud, Sigmund; psychoanalysis
race:
biological approaches to the origin of the Jews, 280–93;
as a category in origin accounts, discrediting of, 246;
genetic study of the Jews and, concerns regarding, 306–10, 312;
Nazi thinking about, 69, 159, 275, 284–87, 291;
population genetics and, 289–91 (see also population genetics);
rejection of the Jews as a, 282–83;
as a scientific concept, discrediting of, 287–89;
validity as a biological category in post-World War II research, 286–87
Rainey, Anson, 90
Ranger, Terence, 251, 260–61
Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki), 31, 42–43
Rawlinson, Henry, 130
Rawlinson, Thomas, 251
Reardon, Jenny, 309
Reinhartz, Adele, 97
Renan, Joseph-Ernest, 66–67, 69, 85, 268
Rendtorff, Rolf, 134
Renfrew, Colin, 72
Reuss, Edward, 109
rhizomes, 54–55, 57, 59, 222
Richards, Martin, 302
Richardson, Hilary, 70
Rider, Chris, 257
roots:
genealogy in the search for (see genealogy);
of the Jews, methods of searching for, 27;
in language, 71 (see also paleolinguistics);
limits as a metaphor for origins, 55;
as a metaphor for origins, 26–27, 32–33
Rosenberg, Noah, 275, 307, 315
Rosenwald, Aviel, 259
Rostovtzeff, Michael, 231
Roth, Susan, 31, 41–42, 45, 52
Rottenberg, Dan, 34
Rubin, Adam, 262–63
Ruth, 216, 221
Ruwitah, Aviton, 312–13
Said, Edward:
Beginnings: Intention and Method, 18–19; on Freud, 204
Saltiel, Mar, 41–42
Samaritans, the, 303–5
Samson, Otto, 283–84
Sand, Shlomo:
birth as exile, constructivism and, 270;
genetics as race science, criticism of, 306–7;
The Invention of the Jewish People, 247–59, 263, 269;
politics informing the constructivism of, 272;
similarities to mainstream scholarship, 320;
as a student, 266
Sanger, Frederick, 292–93
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 322
Saussure, Ferdinand de, 63, 91–93, 95, 98–100, 164–66
Sayce, Archibald, 152
Schäfer, Peter, 175
Schlegel, Friedrich, 85
Schlözer, August Ludwig von, 64
Scholem, Gershom, 12
Schwartz, Samuel, 49
Scott, Joan, 203
Scott, Walter, 251
Seder Olam Zuta, 37–38, 42, 47
Segev, Tom, 252
Seinfeld, Jerry, 31
Sellin, Ernst, 152–53, 187, 197–98
Semites:
as ancestors of the Jews, 65–70, 101, 274;
Aryans and, 86, 129–31;
the Habiru as missing link between Jews and the earliest, 83 (see also Habiru, the);
languages of, characteristics of, 66–67;
languages of, origin of, 69–70;
as a linguistic category, 246;
Moses leading a band of, Freud’s account of, 175, 180;
Phoenicians and Philistines as, 151;
racialized concept of, discrediting of, 70;
Renan’s view of limited intellect of, 67
Sephardic Anousim Cultural Resource Center, 48
Sephardic Home International, 48
Sergeant, Sharon, 40–41, 46, 51
Sergi, Giuseppe, 149
Shaltiel-Gracian, Moshe, 31, 41–45, 52
Shealtiel family, 31, 41–44
Shealtiel Family World Association, 31
(p.393) Sheba, Chaim, 290–91
Shem, 36, 64, 77
Singer, Lester, 165–66
Skorecki, Karl, 294, 296–97, 311
Smith, Anthony, 258–59
Smith, William Robertson, 67–69, 113, 204
Société de Linguistique de Paris, 9
Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies, 48–50
Sombart, Werner, 84
Sorkin, David, 226
source criticism, 106–9, 133–38
Spain, crypto-Jews and the Jewish expulsion of 1492, 48
Spear, Thomas, 261, 263
Spengler, Oswald, 158
Spenser, Edmund, 76
Spurdle, Amanda, 312
Spyer, Jonathan, 271–72
Stalin, Josef, 254
Stampfer, Shaul, 255
Stein, Arlene, 60, 324
Stensen, Niels, 64
Sternberg, Meir, 93–95, 321
Stewart, Charles Edward, 251
Stoczkowski, Wiktor, 12
Stuart, John Sobieski, 251
Surribas Camps, Maria Jose, 39
Tacitus, 3, 74, 245
Talmud, Babylonian, 37, 243–44
tefillin, wearing of, 219–20
Tel Beth Shemesh:
archaeological expedition at, case study using, 141–42;
as archaeological site, recent and biblical background for, 142–45;
first excavation at, 148–52;
second excavation at, 152–60;
third excavation at, 160, 166–73
Thomas, Mark, 294, 311–13
Thompson, Thomas, 136
Tofanelli, Sergio, 297
Torah, the:
the Documentary Hypothesis on the writing of, 107, 116;
origin account in, 2 (see also Genesis, Book of)
Totem and Taboo (Freud), 176, 178–81, 191, 205
Toynbee, Arnold, 158
tree model, 32–33, 56, 73. See also arborescent thought
Trevor-Roper, Hugh, 251
United Nations:
UNESCO Statement on Race, 287–89, 291
Vatke, Wilhelm, 109–10
von Werschuer, Otmar Freiherr, 286
Wade, Nicholas, 307
Wade, Peter, 222
Wagner, Daniel, 38–39
Wagner, Richard, 116
Wahrmund, Adolf, 83
Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew, 222
Wampole, Christy, 27, 91
Wandering (or rootless) Jew, 83, 322
Warburg, Aby, 193
Watson, James, 289
Weber, Max, 47, 132
Wegener, Alfred, 11
Weinreich, Peter, 270–72
Weiss, Sheila Faith, 286
Wellhausen, Julius:
biblical minimalism and, 137;
on the biblical Samson stories, 143;
Darwinian theory of evolution, parallels with, 111–12;
the Documentary Hypothesis, 106–10;
historical skepticism of, 154;
maladaptation in the theory of, 113–15;
the natural versus the artificial, 115–18, 247;
non-Darwinian elements of his theory, 119–20;
ossified character/ development of the Jews, 118–21, 218;
postexilic/ Persian period as turning point, 122–27, 131–32;
primordial beginning, disregard of, 112–13;
Prolegomena to the History of Israel, 113, 115–16;
standing of his arguments today, 133–35, 138
Whitelam, Keith, 18, 136
Wieland, Christoph Martin, 207
Wiencek, Henry, 25
Wiesel, Elie, 43
Wilson, Daniel, 63
(p.394) Wimsatt, W. K., Jr., 10
Winckler, Hugo, 84–87
Wozniak, Steve, 257
Wright, George Ernest, 154, 158, 162–63
Yadin, Yigael, 160–61, 249
Yasur-Landau, Assaf, 171
Y-chromosome, 310
Yehuda, Rachel, 202–3
yehudim/yehudi (the Judeans), 78, 123, 208
Yehud (Persian province), 96, 124, 127, 136–37
Yitzhaki, Rabbi Shlomo. See Rashi
Zerubavel, Eviatar, 32, 34, 47
Zionism, 58–59, 269
Zollschan, Ignaz, 291