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Chasing InnovationMaking Entrepreneurial Citizens in Modern India$
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Lilly Irani

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780691175140

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691175140.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM PRINCETON SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.princeton.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Princeton University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in PRSO for personal use.date: 23 May 2022

Remaking Development

Remaking Development

From Responsibility to Opportunity

(p.23) 2 Remaking Development
Chasing Innovation

Lilly Irani

Princeton University Press

This chapter discusses how politicians and business elites attempt to pose entrepreneurial citizenship as new kind of common sense in response to dilemmas of liberalized development. It shows how civil society responded to the state's call to entrepreneurship. Middle-class Indians put on festivals, conclaves, conferences, and workshops where they translated the call into consultancy, social enterprise projects, and activism in line with their own varied ideological orientations or situations. The proliferation of the norm of entrepreneurial citizenship in specific events, groups, and projects allowed people to pursue their freedoms and respond to their own frustrations in forms compatible with state-coordinated, industry-led national development. Entrepreneurs translated problems into opportunities, and dissatisfaction into exchange value. As such, policy makers saw entrepreneurialism as a prophylaxis against protest, dissatisfaction, and anger; the call to entrepreneurial citizenship redirected blame from structures of power to failures of imagination.

Keywords:   entrepreneurial citizenship, liberalized development, entrepreneurship, middle-class Indians, social enterprise projects, national development, entrepreneurs, entrepreneurialism

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