This introductory chapter addresses the question of why post-communist citizens are less supportive of democracy and markets, and more supportive of state-provided social welfare. The most intuitive answer to this question is that it is somehow a legacy of communism. However, as popular as it has become to attribute outcomes of interest in post-communist countries to “legacies,” and despite some recent theoretical efforts to conceptualize historical legacies more carefully, there is no clearly established theoretical or empirical blueprint for analyzing the effect of legacies on attitude. Accordingly, there are two more theoretically precise potential answers to the question of “why”: it may be because of the experience of living through communism; or it may be because of the experience of living in a post-communist country.
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