This chapter explores attitudes toward gender equality as the fourth issue area for assessing the effect of communist legacies. The baseline finding from initial examinations of the raw data, the bivariate analyses, and all living in a post-communist country analysis was somewhat surprising: not only were the study unable to find any evidence of a “pro-gender equality” attitudinal differential in post-communist countries, but it quite often found exactly the opposite. To the extent that post-communist citizens held different attitudes toward gender equality from those of citizens elsewhere, they were likely to be less, not more, supportive of gender equality. This was particularly the case when controlling for historical effects, economic conditions, socioeconomic development patterns, and the fact that communism featured rule by left-wing governments. At the same time, however, the study did find some evidence that the effect of communist education may have played a role in inculcating pro-gender equality views in line with communist rhetoric.
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