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The Global BourgeoisieThe Rise of the Middle Classes in the Age of Empire$
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David Motadel, Christof Dejung, and Jürgen Osterhammel

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780691177342

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691177342.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM PRINCETON SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.princeton.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Princeton University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in PRSO for personal use.date: 26 September 2021

From Global Civilizing Missions to Racial Warfare

From Global Civilizing Missions to Racial Warfare

Class Conflicts and the Representation of the Colonial World in European Middle-Class Thought

(p.251) 12 From Global Civilizing Missions to Racial Warfare
The Global Bourgeoisie

Christof Dejung

Princeton University Press

This chapter describes civilizing missions which were organized by philanthropic societies that were established by bourgeois circles in both the European and non-European worlds. The emerging middle classes in the Middle East or in India, for instance, became engaged in civilizing missions in quite a similar manner to the European home missionary movement. In addition, journalists, scholars, and members of philanthropic societies time and again compared the European underclasses to colonial subjects and used their alleged “primitiveness” in order to claim the modernity of the European bourgeoisie. This may be evidence of the fact that the European middle classes did not consider social developments in European and non-European regions as distinct phenomena but rather as shared aspects of worldwide modernization—without, however, taking into account the emergence of colonial middle classes in that very period. The chapter further demonstrates that the belief that social problems could be solved by social modernization under bourgeois hegemony was ever more challenged after the mid-nineteenth century.

Keywords:   civilizing missions, philanthropy, modernity, European bourgeoisie, worldwide modernization, colonial middle classes, social modernization

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