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Global DevelopmentA Cold War History$
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Sara Lorenzini

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780691180151

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691180151.001.0001

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Multiple Modernities and Socialist Alternatives in the 1970s

Multiple Modernities and Socialist Alternatives in the 1970s

(p.107) 7 Multiple Modernities and Socialist Alternatives in the 1970s
Global Development

Sara Lorenzini

Princeton University Press

This chapter describes how, in the 1970s, development assistance models offered an array of radical alternatives to the capitalist system. Three different models stand out: the Second World around the Soviet Union, the Chinese model of self-reliance, and Third Worldism with its project of a New International Economic Order (NIEO). The NIEO saw a correlation between the growth of the world economy and that of poor countries: the expansion of world trade within a capitalist market was considered progress. It viewed technology as crucial to development and demanded better and easier transfer procedures to access it—but only one technology, the West's. In sum, the NIEO's goal was integration within the capitalist system, for which it was attacked not only by the Soviets, but by radical critics including Andre Gunder Frank and Immanuel Wallerstein. The Soviets criticized Third World intellectuals because of the conceptual weaknesses in their ideas, particularly the paradox of rejecting Western models while hoping for Western support and the way that Third Worldist ideas remained fundamentally connected to Western thought.

Keywords:   development assistance models, capitalist system, Soviet Union, China, Third Worldism, New International Economic Order, world trade, Chinese self-reliance, world economy, Third World intellectuals

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