This chapter discusses the dynamics underlying collective solidarity, building the theory by inferring group dynamics from interactions between individuals and polity dynamics from interactions between groups. Groups vary in their capacity for collective action as a result of a complex mix of individual behaviors, such as the ability to detect and punish free-riders. The capacity for collective solidarity, or asabiya, refers to the group capacity for concerted collective action. The chapter first provides an overview of groups in sociology and how human behavior and sociality promote the evolution of solidaristic behaviors before exploring the importance of ethnic groups and ethnicity in collective solidarity. It then considers the link between collective solidarity and historical dynamics, Ibn Khaldun's theory of political cycles, and Lev Gumilev's theory of ethnogenesis. Finally, it examines how collective solidarity relates to modern concepts such as social capital, Emile Durkheim's mechanical and organic solidarity, and individualism and collectivism.
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