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Two Gods in HeavenJewish Concepts of God in Antiquity$
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Peter Schäfer

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780691181325

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691181325.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM PRINCETON SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.princeton.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Princeton University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in PRSO for personal use.date: 27 June 2022



From Pre-Christian to Post-Christian Judaism

(p.65) Transition
Two Gods in Heaven

Peter Schäfer

Princeton University Press

THIS ESSENTIALLY OUTLINES the binitarian ideas that developed in pre-Christian Judaism and can be viewed as the pool of ideas from which New Testament Christianity drew. Summarizing the range of the texts, it becomes apparent how many of them view the enigmatic godlike or semi-godlike figure alongside God to be an angel. This starts with the angel Michael in Daniel 7, the source of almost all further developments, and climaxes in the Qumran texts. This is hardly surprising, because the angels in Qumran are not by chance referred to as ...

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