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Ernest Sosa

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780691183268

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691183268.001.0001

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Varieties and Levels of Knowledge

Varieties and Levels of Knowledge

(p.87) Chapter Six Varieties and Levels of Knowledge

Ernest Sosa

Princeton University Press

This chapter considers the different types and levels of knowledge, focusing on apt judgment (and judgmental belief) and on corresponding knowledge above mere subcredal animal knowledge. In a best-case scenario, the agent who judges aptly knows that they would likely enough affirm correctly if they affirmed as they intended. The agent affirms alethically fully and aptly only if guided to a correct and apt affirmation by second-order awareness of their competence to so affirm. The affirmation must be safe because the agent must know that they would succeed aptly if they tried, so that if he affirmed they would do so correctly, which is tantamount to safety of affirmation and, in turn, to safety of judgment.

Keywords:   knowledge, apt judgment, judgmental belief, animal knowledge, affirmation, second-order awareness

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