IN THE WRITING of this book, I have incurred many debts. The project began as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University, where I was fortunate to have the guidance of several scholars whom I greatly admire. Mark Beissinger advised this project from its earliest beginnings. He asked difficult questions, offered patient encouragement, and has been an invaluable source of guidance and support. Chris Achen was also an exemplary mentor. His wit and wisdom made our conversations one of the singular pleasures of graduate training at Princeton. I am also deeply indebted to Grigo Pop-Eleches for his insightful comments on every draft. His feedback pushed me to sharpen the project’s empirics and helped me to wrestle with alternative arguments. At Princeton, I also wish to thank Carles Boix, Rafaela Dancygier, Amaney Jamal, Steven Kotkin, Markus Prior, and Rory Truex.
Nuffield College, where I was a postdoctoral fellow during the 2015–2016 academic year, provided the perfect setting for revising this manuscript. Ben Ansell gave valuable guidance on framing and engaged generously with the project’s arguments. My wonderful writing group in Oxford—Ezequiel González-Ocantos, Jody LaPorte, Luis Schiumerini, Jazmín Sierra, and Maya Tudor—helped me negotiate the difficult transition from dissertation to book. Their friendship and thoughtful suggestions kept me on track. This project also benefitted greatly from conversations at Nuffield with Nancy Bermeo, Ray Duch, Geoff Evans, Olga Onuch, Henry Thompson, and Laurence Whitehead.
At the University of Southern California, my colleagues generously engaged with this project in seminars and workshops, in conversations on campus and on the hiking trail. Gerry Munck, whose own work on democratization has taught me so much, has been a wonderful mentor. His detailed feedback at various junctures and many helpful insights significantly strengthened the manuscript. Ben Graham has been a terrific friend and incredibly generous colleague. He supported this project through careful comments, (p.viii) transcription of my book workshop, and encouragement when I needed it most. I could not ask for better junior faculty friends than Erin Baggott Carter, Brett Carter, Andrew Coe, Morris Levy, James Lo, and Jon Markowitz. I also thank Jeb Barnes, Dennis Chong, Ann Crigler, Pat James, Jane Junn, Saori Katada, Stan Rosen, and Jeff Sellers for their constructive engagement and advice along the way. Individual chapters of the manuscript were greatly improved by feedback from participants in the CIS Working Paper Series, and especially from comments by Evgeniia Iakhnis, Xinru Ma, and Kelly Zvbogo.
I am also extremely grateful for a terrific discussion of the manuscript at the book workshop held at USC’s Center for International Studies in the winter of 2016. I thank especially my external discussants Stephen Haggard and Cynthia Kaplan for their comments on each and every chapter and for providing valuable advice on the project’s overall framing. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Dave Kang for supporting the workshop as director of the Center for International Studies, to the many faculty and graduate students who participated, and to the wonderful CIS staff who helped to organize it, Cort Brinkerhoff and Madeline Brown.
Before completing this manuscript in the fall of 2019, I joined the faculty at Cornell University and relocated with my family to Ithaca. I wish to thank my wonderful colleagues in the Department of Government and especially Begüm Adalet, David Bateman, Val Bunce, Ali Cirone, Gustavo Flores-Macías, Jill Frank, Sabrina Karim, Tom Pepinsky, Rachel Riedl, Ken Roberts, Sid Tarrow, Jeremy Wallace, Nic van de Walle, and Jessica Weiss for advice and encouragement as I made final revisions.
Previous versions of several chapters were presented at annual meetings of the American Political Science Association and Midwest Political Science Association. I was fortunate to benefit from the insightful comments of Scott Gehlbach, Henry Hale, Tom Remington, and Rory Truex, my discussants at those conferences. I also wish to thank seminar participants at Columbia, Essex, George Washington, the Higher School of Economics in Moscow, the London School of Economics, NYU, Oxford, Princeton, UCLA, the University of Southern California, Vanderbilt, and Washington University St. Louis for excellent feedback.
For helpful discussion and comments along the way, I also thank Graeme Blair, Noah Buckley, Volha Charnysh, Michael Donnelly, Sarah El-Kazaz, Jordan Gans-Morse, Yanilda Gonzalez, Aram Hur, Adam Krawitz, Tomila Lankina, Noam Lupu, Israel Marquez, Gwyneth McClendon, Michael Miller, (p.ix) John Reuter, Joan Ricart-Huguet, Graeme Robertson, Arturas Rozenas, Rudy Sil, David Szakonyi, Tariq Thachil, Josh Tucker, Carlos Velasco Rivera, and Seth Wessler. Tim Frye kindly read drafts of several of this book’s chapters and offered valuable advice at various stages of the project.
My field research would not have been possible without the support of many different people and institutions. In Russia, I discussed ideas from this project with Anna Andreenkova, Elena Avraamova, Vladimir Gimpelson, Yevgeny Gontmakher, Alexey Grazhdankin, Lev Gudkov, Svetlana Mareeva, Lilia Ovcharova, Ovsey Shkaratan, Irina Soboleva, Natalia Tikhonova, Mark Urnov, and Denis Volkov. The project, in turn, has benefitted from their valuable insights and suggestions. The Higher School of Economics was a terrific place to pursue my research. Mark Urnov opened his personal archive to me and was particularly generous with his contacts in Russian politics and academia. His support and good humor greatly enriched my time in Moscow. I am also grateful to the Levada Center and the Foundation for Public Opinion (FOM) for generously sharing their data. It has been a pleasure to collaborate with the Levada Center and the Institute for Comparative Social Research (CESSI) for a number of years.
In Ukraine, I wish to thank Anatoly Arseenko, Elena Besedina, Liudmila Cherenko, Oleksandr Demianchuk, Evgeny Golovakha, Oleksey Haran, Olga Kupets, Olga Kutsenko, Mikhailo Mishchenko, Denys Nizalov, Olena Nizalova, Svetlana Oksamitna, Vladimir Paniotto, Tatiana Petrushina, Liudmila Shanghina, Elena Simonchuk, and Ganna Vakhitova for helpful discussions. Vladimir Sayenko and his mother Lydia were wonderful hosts, and my time in Kiev was improved immeasurably by their hospitality. Being met by a familiar face when I got off the train and the singular pleasure of seeing a friend I hadn’t seen in years added to the joy of fieldwork. I am grateful also to have shared many cups of tea and conversations with Sasha, with whom I lived in Kiev. I also owe a debt of gratitude to the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and to Victor Stepanenko for facilitatingmy research in Kyiv. The Institute of Sociology, the Razumkov Centre, and the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) very generously allowed me to use their data for this project.
In Kazakhstan, Sara Alpysbaeva, Alima Bissenova, Sholpan Esimova, Gulmira Ileuova, Lyaila Ivatova, Elena Maltseva, Daulet Mynzhasarov, Bakhytnur Otarbaeva, Botagoz Rakisheva, Nurbek Sayasat, Caress Schenk, Nazym Shedenova, Alexei Trochev, Aigul Zabirova, Ernar Zharkeshov, and Aiman (p.x) Zhusupova made important contributions to this research. I also wish to thank the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Nur-Sultan (formerly Astana) for welcoming me as a visiting researcher and my colleagues at the Academy for their camaraderie over many cafeteria lunches and cups of tea. Professor Lyaila Ivatova opened her home to me and was an incredibly gracious host. I am grateful for her company, conversation, and warm manty as temperatures in Astana dipped and the wind whipped in winter months.
The research for this book was made possible by the generous financial support of several institutions. I gratefully acknowledge funding for my field research from the U.S. Department of Education’s Fulbright-Hays program, the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies, and the Mamdouha S. Bobst Center for Peace and Justice. Dave Kangprovided the funding for a workshop on this manuscriptat USC’s Center for International Studies.
At Princeton University Press, I wish to thank Eric Crahan for his early interest in my manuscript and Bridget Flannery-McCoy for seeing it through to publication. I am also grateful to Alena Chekanov and Kathleen Cioffi for their help along the way, and to Wendy Washburn for meticulously editing every page. Tali Mendelberg, the series editor, and three anonymous readers offered excellent feedback, along with praise for the project that helped motivate me to finish it.
My husband, Ian Kysel, has shared this project’s evolution and much more since we met at Swarthmore College. He read every draft and talked through every chapter—on bikes along the Hudson, on the towpath along the Thames, on the hiking trails in Griffith Park, and climbing the gorges in Ithaca. His love and patience made the writing possible. Littlest but not least, Ezra joined our family between rounds of revisions. I was at my desk working on chapter 3 when I went into labor. This project has grown up with him.
Finally, my parents, Raymond Rosenfeld and Janelle McCammon, met as doctoral students in political science at Emory in 1970. When I took my first tenure-track job, my father sent me fifty years of the American Political Science Review to make my office feel more like home. Their many gifts inspire me as a parent and scholar. This book is dedicated to them.