This chapter takes a look at how working parents can affect their children, and how. Evidence from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) shows that, other things held constant (including income), mother's work has no marked effect, good or bad, on the emotional health of her children. However, the chapter goes further by exploring the behavioral effects on the child if they have a minder or some form of nursery care. The child's intellectual development is also explored. In addition to these, the chapter takes a look at the effects of unemployed parents on their children. ALSPAC provides clear unemployment data only on the fathers of the children and shows that this can have a critical effect on children's development. There are many channels through which this can work—via the parents' mood, family conflict, reduced aspirations, taunting at school, and simple loss of income.
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