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Patchwork LeviathanPockets of Bureaucratic Effectiveness in Developing States$

Erin Metz McDonnell

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780691197364

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691197364.001.0001

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(p.275) Index

(p.275) Index

Source:
Patchwork Leviathan
Publisher:
Princeton University Press

Italic pagination refers to figures and tables.

Abacha, Sani, 147–48
absenteeism, 110, 121–22, 225
Acquah, George Kingsley, 45, 152–53, 216, 233
Acquah, Paul, 40, 129, 154, 167, 188, 216, 233
Adisadel College, 234
Administrative Department of Public Service (DASP), 117–18, 198–200, 251n32
agriculture, 245n122;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 119;
ecological diversity and, 12;
elitism and, 157;
extension agents and, 212;
fertilizer and, 220;
Gates Foundation and, 208;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 106, 112, 145–46, 155, 183;
methodologies and, 232;
Ministry of Agriculture and, 119, 145, 155, 157, 214, 220–21;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 153;
subsistence, 26;
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and, 141, 215;
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and, 13–14, 157–58;
U.S. New Deal Agricultural Adjustment Agency and, 215, 233, 253n39;
water quality and, 210
Akunyili, Dora:
bribery of brother-in-law of, 110;
death of, 247n65;
dual habitus and, 169;
education of, 169, 172;
leadership style of, 167;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 107, 109, 111, 113, 129, 148, 172, 180–81, 183, 189, 206;
reform and, 107
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), 67, 99–100, 127, 177–78, 196
American Political Development (APD), 16, 214–15, 253n34
American Sociological Association, 32
Anderson, Elijah, 91
autarquias, 142–43
autonomy:
binary, 246n10;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 120, 161;
bureaucratic ethos and, 8, 20, 213;
bureaucratic niches and, 204;
Carpenter on, 215;
de facto, 136–37, 142–46, 155, 160, 164;
de jure, 140, 142, 145–46, 164;
elitism and, 8, 135–47, 154–57, 160–64;
external constraints and, 137;
Fukuyama on, 248n2;
group style and, 83;
interstitial niches and, 216–17;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 115, 161–62;
labor pool and, 30;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 161–62;
neopatrimonialism and, 23;
New Public Management and, 138;
pockets of effectiveness and, 20, 195;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 161;
Salt Inspectorate and, 161–62;
use of term, 139
Bank of Brazil, 200
Bank of Ghana:
Acquah and, 40, 129, 154, 188, 216, 233;
comparison cases and, 110, 113, 129–30;
cultivation and, 67, 241n13;
dual habitus and, 167;
elitism and, 136;
leaders and, 167;
methodologies and, 230, 231, 234;
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department and, 12, 38, 129, 153–54;
neopatrimonialism and, 136, 153–54;
protection and, 103;
recruitment and, 38–43, 51;
reputation of, 38, 43–44;
scholarship and, 209–10, 216
Belgium, 15
Benin, 18
best practices, 88, 127, 207, 224
Bolivia, 105 (p.276)
boundary marking:
cultivation and, 61–70, 241n16;
distinctive technologies as, 67–68;
learned time culture and, 64–66;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 63;
poor performers and, 68–70;
symbolic time and, 61–64;
technology and, 67–68;
time culture and, 61–66
Bourdieu, Pierre, 24, 49, 168
Brazil, 237n18;
comparison cases and, 106, 115–20;
corruption and, 13, 116, 189, 197–98, 201;
cultivation and, 62;
dual habitus and, 169, 180, 182, 184;
Kubitschek and, 115, 119–20, 141, 142–44, 153, 158, 161, 163, 200;
methodologies and, 232;
Ministry of Agriculture and, 119;
Ministry of Public Works and, 119;
neopatrimonialism and, 139, 142–44;
pockets of effectiveness and, 189, 192–94, 197–201;
private banks and, 13;
scholarship and, 208, 212;
slow pace of, 62–63;
state-building and, 115–16;
Superintendency of Money and Credit (SUMOC) and, 120;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE):
administrative costs of, 116;
Administrative Department of Public Service (DASP) and, 117–18, 198–200, 251n32;
after loss of founding leaders, 189;
agriculture and, 119;
autonomy and, 120, 161;
bureaucratic ethos of, 120;
cadres and, 142;
Campos and, 117, 143–44, 167, 169, 180, 182–83;
clustering and, 117;
comparison cases and, 106, 108, 115–20, 122, 130, 132, 134, 244nn44 and 47;
corruption and, 244n47;
Council of Development and, 120;
cultivation and, 117–18, 132;
domain expansion and, 193–94;
dual habitus and, 167, 169, 172, 180, 182–83;
education and, 118;
elitism and, 142–44;
exams and, 117, 122;
Executive Groups and, 200;
external opposition and, 132;
Fund for Rehabilitation (FRE) and, 142;
Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV) and, 118;
growth of, 14;
humanitarian aid and, 120;
income and, 106, 116;
incorruptibility and, 116;
influence of, 116;
leadership and, 167;
as local guarantor, 209;
Lopes and, 118, 169, 180, 198–200;
meritocracy and, 117, 122;
methodologies and, 232;
neopatrimonialism and, 141–44, 153, 158, 161, 163–64;
Paiva Teixeira and, 117, 143, 169, 180;
patronage and, 13;
Plan of Goals and, 144;
pockets of effectiveness and, 21, 117, 134, 189, 193–94, 197–200, 244n44, 251n18;
protection and, 119–20;
Quadros and, 120;
recruitment and, 117;
reputation of, 116;
return on assets of, 116;
scholarship on, 143–44;
spreading professionals and, 197;
sweat equity and, 182–83;
Torres and, 143, 167, 169, 172, 180;
Vargas and, 108, 115–16, 118, 120, 134, 141–44, 153, 164, 198
bribery, 4–5, 10, 18–19, 41, 57, 59, 83, 108, 110, 161, 197, 203, 223, 227
Budget Division, 94–95, 101, 231
bureaucracy: cognitive approach and, 6, 21, 25, 28, 105, 171, 177, 204–5, 221–24;
corruption and, 6, 9, 15–16, 18, 22, 29, 38, 55, 70, 83, 105, 107, 109–10, 122, 128, 145, 162, 165, 201, 213, 223, 225;
cultivation and, 53–57, 61, 63, 68, 70–83, 241nn13 and 36;
distribution issues and, 6, 28–30, 34, 44, 105, 116, 139, 205;
doing, 6, 8, 10, 54, 145, 168, 171, 176–78, 221–24;
dual habitus and, 165–72, 175–86;
interstitial, 6–7, 9, 14 (see also interstitial niches);
labor pool and, 28;
methodologies and, 229;
need for more, 28;
neopatrimonialism and, 138–39, 145, 149, 158–62;
Nigeria and, 6;
pockets of effectiveness and, 14, 187–201, 252n7;
protection and, 85–91, 94–95, 98–110, 114, 116, 121–34;
recruitment and, 27–31, 34–35, 38, 44–52, 240n36;
reform and, 5, 8, 10–11, 16, 23–24, 54, 82, 107, 110, 126, 128, 134, 162, 166, 171, 179, 198–205, 214, 223;
reputation of, 75;
scholarship on, 202–27, 254n46;
Weber on, 1, 9–10, 15, 35, 50, 54, 75, 83, 95, 102, 138, 165, 167, 202–5, 221, 229, 252n7. See also specific organization
bureaucratic ethos:
absenteeism and, 110, 121–22, 225;
after loss of founding leaders, 188–92;
amplifying commonalities and, 77–80;
autonomy and, 213;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 120;
clustered cadres and, 8;
comparison cases and, 23, 104–6, 122, 126–29, 133;
corruption and, 9, 16, 18, 22, 29, 55, 122, 128;
cultivation and, 7–9, 22, 53–57, 75, 77–83, 241n13;
dual habitus and, 166, 168, 171–72, 175–79, 186;
education and, 127;
group style and, 77–80;
industrialized nations and, 10;
ineffectiveness and, 5, 19, 28, 54, 93, 104, 128, 130, 135, 137, 220, 243;
lived experience and, (p.277) 8, 22, 54, 57, 83, 117, 168, 172, 176–77, 204, 217, 222;
moral issues and, 4, 9;
neopatrimonialism and, 6, 14, 212–13;
niches and, 2–5;
as ongoing project, 205;
patchworking and, 6, 12, 14–17, 104, 225;
patterns in, 18;
pockets of effectiveness and, 24, 187–93, 197–201;
protection and, 23, 86;
recruitment and, 6, 22, 29–31, 52;
reform and, 5, 8, 10–11, 16, 23–24, 54, 117, 126, 128, 166, 171, 179, 198, 202–5, 217;
scholarship on, 202–5, 212–14, 217, 221–25, 254n16;
self-comparison to, 9;
subculture of, 6–7, 21–22, 31, 54, 56, 77, 106, 176, 188, 204–5, 218;
sweat equity and, 182–83;
tacit knowledge and, 8;
variation in capacity and, 6;
Weber on, 1, 9;
work ethics and, 4
bureaucratic niches:
agency failure and, 17–21;
alternative foundations for action and, 7;
autonomy and, 204;
comparison cases and, 23, 104–5, 133–34;
cultivation and, 6, 63, 81–82;
diffusion of, 193–201;
discipline and, 16, 23, 65, 85, 99–102, 227, 252–53, 253n41;
dual habitus and, 166–67, 182, 184, 204;
education and, 8, 24, 32, 90, 127, 168–72, 210;
as interstitial niches, 21;
lived experience and, 7–8, 22, 24, 54, 63, 78, 82–83, 168–72, 176–77, 204, 223;
meritocracy and, 107;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 2–3;
neopatrimonialism and, 23, 139, 149, 160–62, 217;
nonfinancial incentives and, 35–37;
nonpecuniary motivations and, 37–38;
organizational goals and, 2, 7–8, 22–24, 52, 83, 85–86, 127–28, 139, 159, 165, 208;
as pockets of effectiveness, 21, 187, 193, 195, 197–98, 201;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 2–6, 12, 21, 202;
protection and, 88, 103;
recruitment and, 6–7, 22, 27–28;
scale and, 193–201;
scholarship on, 204, 210, 226–27
bureaucratic subcultures:
clustered cadres and, 6, 22;
comparison cases and, 13, 106, 119;
cultivation and, 7, 22, 54, 56, 65, 74, 76–77, 131–33, 241n36;
dual habitus and, 176;
interstitial niches and, 2, 6–7, 13, 21–22, 31, 54, 56, 77, 106, 176, 188, 204–5, 241n36;
organizational cultures and, 21;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 4;
recruitment and, 31, 40;
scholarship on, 204–5, 216, 218, 253n22
Burundi, 18
CACEX, 200
cadres:
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 142;
clustered, 8, 24, 179–82;
cognitive subcultures and, 204;
dual habitus and, 7, 179–85, 204, 214;
founding, 168, 180–87, 190, 198, 204, 206;
pockets of effectiveness and, 187, 190, 198, 201;
recruitment and, 215
Campos, Roberto de Oliveira, 117, 143–44, 167, 169, 180, 182–83
Cardoso, Fernando, 197
Carpenter, Daniel, 23, 139, 141, 157–58, 161, 215
Car Wash Operation, 197
central banks:
global economy and, 18;
methodologies and, 231, 233;
neopatrimonialism and, 136, 161;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188;
recruitment and, 39–40, 42;
scholarship and, 212. See also Bank of Ghana
charismatic authority, 20, 116, 152, 166–68, 184, 249n9
chasing, 3, 84, 86, 89–93, 102, 171
China, 237n18;
bureaucratic ethos and, 6;
comparison cases and, 106, 107–8, 120–25, 131, 178–79;
cultivation and, 55;
dual habitus and, 169, 178–80;
methodologies and, 232;
neopatrimonialism and, 6, 139, 149–51, 158;
pockets of effectiveness and, 190, 198;
Qing dynasty and, 120, 160;
Salt Inspectorate and, 13–14 (see also Salt Inspectorate);
scholarship and, 227;
Sino-Japanese War and, 190;
warlordism of, 13
China National Salt Industry Corporation, 190–91
Christians, 12, 233
civil service:
autarquias and, 142;
cultivation and, 64, 69;
education and, 26–27, 32, 157, 169;
ethnic issues and, 112–13;
Kenya and, 112–13;
neopatrimonialism and, 142, 154–55, 157;
Office of the Head of Civil Service and, 229;
patronage and, 253n34;
protection and, 92;
recruitment and, 26, 30, 32, 37, 41, 47;
reputation of, 11, 26–27, 57, 124, 229;
salary issues and, 26–27, 57, 124, 142;
scholarship on, 216
clientelism, 2, 128, 131, 152, 198
clustered cadres, 8, 24, 179–82
clustering:
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 117;
comparison cases and, 23, 104–9, 113, 117, 122, 130, 133–34;
cultivation and, 7–8, 53, (p.278)
clustering 56–57, 61, 77, 79;
dual habitus and, 24, 165, 168–71, 179–82, 185;
education and, 8, 24, 30, 38, 157, 169, 171, 181, 214, 217;
external projects of reshaping and, 23, 85, 98–100, 102;
group style and, 22, 57, 77–80, 83, 106, 118, 183, 213;
influence effect and, 22, 54–57, 70, 79, 107;
internal coping mechanisms and, 7, 23, 85, 89, 107, 125;
interstitial niches and, 77–80;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 113;
labor pool and, 30–31, 38, 204;
lived experience and, 8, 22, 24, 57, 117, 145, 168–71, 181, 217;
meritocracy and, 113;
neopatrimonialism and, 138–42, 145, 156–59, 163;
pockets of effectiveness and, 190;
private sector and, 109, 225;
pro-bureaucratic resources and, 6;
protection and, 7–8, 85–86, 88, 98–103;
pruning and, 7, 68–70, 107, 113, 123;
recruitment and, 7–8, 21–23, 26, 28, 30, 38, 56, 86, 107, 109–10, 113, 117, 122–23, 171, 185, 204, 217;
Salt Inspectorate and, 122–23;
scholarship on, 203–6, 213–18, 225–26;
selection effect and, 22, 34, 37–38, 55, 57, 70–74, 107, 122;
subgroup support and, 216;
tacit knowledge and, 205
code switching, 89–92, 102
Cofie, Sandra, 45
cognitive approach:
adverse events and, 242n51;
bureaucracy and, 6, 21, 25, 28, 105, 171, 177, 204–5, 221–24;
corruption and, 252n3;
cultivation and, 61, 79–80;
declarative cognition and, 223–24, 254n55;
dual habitus and, 168–71, 175, 177, 250n38;
in-group cohesion and, 133;
neopatrimonialism and, 141;
pockets of effectiveness and, 199;
protection and, 102;
recruitment and, 28–29;
subcultures and, 6, 204–5
colonialism, x, 4, 11, 14, 26, 112, 170, 178, 211, 237
Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ), 46
Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC), 147, 153
communism, 53, 143, 190
comparison cases:
Bank of Ghana and, 110, 113, 129–30;
Brazil and, 106, 115–20;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 106, 108, 115–20, 122, 130, 132, 134, 244nn44 and 47;
bureaucratic ethos and, 23, 104–6, 122, 126–29, 133;
bureaucratic niches and, 23, 104–5, 133–34;
bureaucratic subcultures and, 13, 106, 117, 119, 131–33;
China and, 106, 120–22, 131, 178–79;
clientelism and, 128, 131;
clustering and, 23, 104–9, 113, 117, 122, 130, 133–34;
corruption and, 105–10, 113, 116, 120–25, 128–31, 243n4, 244n47;
cultivation and, 110–11;
elitism and, 108, 114, 116, 123–27, 132;
external opposition and, 131–33;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 127–30;
hard work and, 107–8, 111;
innovation and, 115, 126–28;
interstitial niches and, 106, 119, 127;
Kenya and, 106, 112–13, 120, 127, 132, 178–79, 243n4;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 106–7, 112–15, 120, 123, 125, 127, 130, 132–33;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 130;
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department and, 129–30;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 106–13, 122–23, 125–31, 134;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 113, 129–30;
neopatrimonialism and, 105–7, 128, 138;
new insights from, 126–33;
Nigeria and, 106, 108–11, 131;
organizational goals and, 127–28;
patronage and, 105–7, 112–13, 116, 120, 122–23, 125, 129, 132;
pockets of effectiveness and, 23, 105, 117, 134;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 113, 130;
private sector and, 109, 114, 119–20;
protection and, 111–12;
public interest and, 105, 111;
recruitment and, 23, 107, 109–10, 113, 117, 122–23;
reform and, 107, 110, 117, 121–23, 126–34, 243n4;
reputation and, 106–7, 116–20, 124, 128–30;
Salt Inspectorate and, 106, 107–8, 120–25, 129;
taxes and, 106, 120–26, 129–31
competition, 112, 114, 174, 220
cooptation, 101–2, 115, 119
corruption:
agency failure and, 18–21;
Brazil and, 13, 116, 189, 197–98, 201;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 244n47;
bribery and, 4–5, 10, 18–19, 41, 57, 59, 83, 108, 110, 161, 197, 203, 223, 227;
bureaucracy and, 6, 9, 15–16, 18, 22, 29, 38, 55, 70, 83, 105, 107, (p.279) 109–10, 122, 128, 145, 162, 165, 201, 213, 223, 225;
Car Wash Operation and, 197;
clientelism and, 2, 128, 131, 152, 198;
cognitive approach and, 252n3;
comparison cases and, 105–10, 113, 116, 120–25, 128–31, 243n4, 244n47;
cultivation and, 55, 58–60, 70, 76, 79–80, 83;
dual habitus and, 165, 248n2;
embezzlement and, 147–48;
Ghana and, 2, 5, 13, 15, 18–19, 22, 38, 105, 110, 113, 125, 130, 156, 213;
income and, 105, 116, 156, 204;
incorruptibility and, 22, 29, 79, 107, 116, 145;
ineffectiveness and, 5, 19, 28, 54, 93, 104, 128, 130, 135, 137, 220, 243;
Kenya and, 113, 243n4;
Kenyatta and, 112;
Klitgaard formula of, 205;
larger environment and, 6;
methodologies and, 232;
Million Acre Settlement Scheme and, 112;
money laundering and, 148, 197;
monopolies and, 18, 126, 191, 205;
neopatrimonialism and, 136, 145, 148, 156, 162;
nepotism and, 4, 19, 41–42, 110;
Nigeria and, 13;
organizational goals and, 9;
organizational subcultures and, 4;
pockets of effectiveness and, 189, 197, 201;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 5, 59, 130;
prescriptive model for, 223;
racketeering and, 9;
recruitment and, 38, 41–42, 46;
rents and, 9;
Salt Inspectorate and, 13, 19, 107, 122–25, 129, 156, 162, 201;
scholarship on, 5, 20, 205, 211, 213, 223, 225, 252n3;
Serious Fraud Office and, 46;
state capacity and, 5;
taxes and, 18, 120, 125, 129, 162;
Yanwu Shu and, 121–22
cost-benefit analysis, 1, 22, 37–38, 97, 101, 176, 204
coups, 11, 147, 159
Court of Appeals, 188, 231, 251n1
cultivation:
amplifying commonalities and, 77–80;
Bank of Ghana and, 67, 241n13;
boundary marking and, 61–70, 241n16;
Brazil and, 62;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 117–18, 132;
bureaucracy and, 53–57, 61, 63, 68, 70–83, 241nn13 and 36;
bureaucratic ethos and, 7–9, 22, 53–57, 75, 77–83, 241n13;
bureaucratic niches and, 6, 63, 81–82;
bureaucratic subcultures and, 7, 22, 54, 56, 65, 74, 76–77, 131–33, 241n36;
China and, 55;
civil service and, 64, 69;
clustering and, 7–8, 53, 56–57, 61, 77, 79;
cognitive approach and, 61, 79–80;
comparison cases and, 110–11;
corruption and, 55, 58–60, 70, 76, 79–80, 83;
discipline and, 65, 68–71, 73;
efficacy and, 80–82;
ethnic issues and, 51;
experienced efficacy and, 80–82;
external opposition and, 131–33;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 60–62, 66–76, 79;
Goffmanian approach and, 107–8;
group style and, 77–80, 83;
hard work and, 60, 62, 64, 66;
influence effect and, 54–57, 70, 79;
innovation and, 67–68;
internal, 131–33;
interstitial niches and, 58–65, 68, 70–71, 74–83;
Karanja and, 114;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 114, 131–33;
learning by emulation and, 57–61;
lived experience and, 54, 57, 72, 78, 80–83, 204–5;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 59, 63;
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department and, 68;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 110–11, 131;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 58, 62, 65, 75;
neopatrimonialism and, 56, 61, 68, 70, 78, 83, 241n35;
organizational goals and, 55;
pockets of effectiveness and, 42;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 57–65, 69, 75;
pride in comparison and, 74–77;
principal-agent models and, 54–55, 72;
private sector and, 70;
productivity and, 62–63, 69–70, 123;
public interest and, 55;
public service and, 57, 80;
recruitment and, 56, 65, 68;
reform and, 54, 66, 82;
reputation and, 57–61, 65, 71, 75–76;
Salt Inspectorate and, 123–24;
selection effect and, 55, 57, 70–74;
small-group acculturation and, 54–57, 71;
sociological conceptualization and, 54–57;
tacit knowledge and, 54, 82;
technology and, 64–68, 70, 72, 81;
time culture and, 61–66;
Weber and, 54, 75, 83
customs, 5–6, 18, 87, 150
Dane, Richard:
administrative costs and, 150;
elitism and, 151, 156, 169;
protection and, 121;
Salt Inspectorate and, 121, 150–51, 156, 167, 169, 178–80, 183, 189–91, 194, 249n6
Danida, 152, 209
declarative cognition, 223–24, 254n55
decoupling, 203, 210, 221, 226, 233, 240n4, 252n4
democracy, 11–12, 147–48, 152, 188, 219
DiMaggio, Paul J., 138, 252n7 (p.280)
discipline:
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 209;
bureaucratic niches and, 16, 23, 65, 85, 99–102, 227, 252–53, 253n41;
comparison cases and, 104–5, 111, 115–16, 119, 125–27, 132;
cultivation and, 65, 68–71, 73;
protection and, 85, 93, 99–103;
public servants and, 9, 16–17, 21, 23, 252n4;
recruitment and, 35, 39, 240n34;
scholarship on, 209, 211–12, 215–16, 220–21, 227;
social, 35, 65, 99, 105, 127
Dodoo, Francis, xii
drugs:
counterfeit, 13, 106, 108–11, 131, 147, 167;
illicit, 131;
pharmaceutical, 14, 106
dual habitus, 23;
Bank of Ghana and, 167;
Bourdieu on, 24, 49, 168;
Brazil and, 167, 169, 172, 180–84;
bureaucracy and, 165–72, 175–86, 204;
cadres and, 7, 179–85, 204, 214;
China and, 169, 178–80;
clustering and, 24, 165, 168–71, 179–82, 185;
cognitive approach and, 168–71, 175, 177, 250n38;
cognitive subcultures and, 204;
corruption and, 165, 248n2;
cultural/ cognitive approach to, 168–71;
discretion and, 165–66, 168, 171;
education and, 168–81;
elitism and, 165, 169;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 166, 177, 180–81, 185;
Goldilocks zone for, 169;
great men and, 166, 179–82;
hard work and, 173, 175–77;
innovation and, 24, 170–71, 177, 248n2;
interstitial niches and, 166–67, 177–78, 183, 185;
Karanja and, 167, 169, 178, 180, 183;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 167, 169, 178–80, 183;
labor pool and, 166;
leaders and, 166–68;
lived experience and, 8, 24, 168–81, 204;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 181, 188;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 166–67, 169, 172, 180–81, 183;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 166, 180, 185;
nationalist backlash and, 169–70;
neopatrimonialism and, 24, 165, 181, 184;
Nigeria and, 169, 180;
organizational goals and, 165–66;
patronage and, 184;
pockets of effectiveness and, 167–68, 183–84;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 166, 172, 174, 180–83;
private sector and, 182;
public interest and, 165;
recruitment and, 171, 185;
reform and, 8, 166, 169–71, 179–84, 250n45;
sociological foundation of change and, 179–83;
sweat equity and, 182–83;
tacit knowledge and, 171, 175, 177;
taxes and, 166–67, 179;
technology and, 168, 185;
Weber and, 165, 167, 179, 249n9
Economic Research and Forecasting Division, 188–89
Ecuador, 18
education:
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 118;
bureaucratic niches and, 8, 24, 32, 90, 127, 168–72, 210;
capacity building and, 210;
civil service and, 26–27, 32, 157, 169;
clustering and, 8, 24, 30, 38, 157, 169, 171, 181, 214, 217;
dual habitus and, 168–81;
elitism and, 8, 90, 150, 169, 214, 220, 234–35;
encore, 218;
Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV) and, 118, 199–200;
international, 170–78;
learning by emulation and, 57–61;
lived experience and, 171–72;
mentors and, 242n45;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 111, 127, 169;
parental, 234–35;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 157;
protection and, 89–90;
recruitment and, 26–27, 30, 32–33, 37–40;
secondary school and, 90–91;
state administration of, 221;
university, 8, 26–27, 34, 36, 38, 90, 117–18, 145, 154, 168–74, 200, 214, 218, 229, 234–35, 249, 249n15;
workshops and, 1, 111, 127, 206, 217
efficacy, 80–82, 112
elitism:
active sponsorship and, 158–60;
agriculture and, 157;
attention and, 23, 135–57, 160–61, 164, 209;
autonomy and, 8, 20, 135–47, 154–57, 160–64;
Bank of Ghana and, 136;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 142–44;
comparison cases and, 108, 114, 116, 123–27, 132;
configurational approach and, 24;
Dane and, 151, 156, 169;
dual habitus and, 165, 169;
education and, 8, 90, 150, 169, 214, 220, 234–35;
executive will and, 157–60;
existential priority and, 158–60;
favorably disposed elites and, 142–57;
inattention and, 8, 23, 139, 141, 149–57, 160, 165, 204, 209;
Karanja and, 144–46;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 144–47;
Kenyatta and, 112, 144–47, 191, 192;
labor pool and, 123, 156;
landowners and, 116; (p.281)
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 147–48;
neopatrimonialism and, 135–64, 246n29, 248n86;
opposition and, 157–60;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188, 191–92, 194, 198;
protection and, 136–40;
salary issues and, 87;
Salt Inspectorate and, 149–51;
scholarship and, 8;
system design and, 55;
Vargas and, 142–44
embezzlement, 147–48
employee handbooks, 32, 42
esprit de corps, 20, 52, 80, 106, 118, 180, 221, 240n36
ethnic issues:
cultivation and, 51;
Ghanaian diversity and, 11–12, 20;
group dynamics and, 2, 19, 51;
Kenya and, 13, 112–15, 127, 146, 191;
methodologies and, 233–34;
neopatrimonialism and, 13, 106, 137, 146
Executive Groups, 200
executive will, 17–18, 137, 139, 141–42, 149, 158–60, 204, 232, 238n48
explicit knowledge, 30, 44, 171–74
external projects of reshaping, 23, 85, 98–100, 102
Feingold, 215, 253n39
Finland, 138
Forson, Bernard, Jr., 188, 233
founding cadres, 168, 180–87, 190, 198, 204, 206
France, 133, 169
Fukuyama, Francis, 248n2
Fund for Economic Rehabilitation (FRE), 142–43
Gates Foundation, 208
GEICON, 200
GEIMAPE, 200
gender, xi, 217, 233
General Motors, 233
Germany, 63, 169
Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), 118, 199–200
Ghana:
bureaucracy and, 13 (see also bureaucracy);
central banks and, 136;
comparison cases and, 104–10, 113–14, 117–18, 124–30, 133;
corruption and, 2, 5, 13, 15, 18–19, 22, 38, 105, 110, 113, 125, 130, 156, 213;
cultivation and, 54, 57, 62–74, 77–78, 80;
democracy and, 11–12, 147–48, 152, 188;
demographics of, 12;
diverse culture of, ix–x, 11–12, 20;
dual habitus and, 166–83;
economy of, 12, 27;
elections in, ix, 12;
hospitality of, 12;
independence and, 11, 13, 26, 159, 238n48;
international education and, 172–78;
methodologies and, 17, 20–23, 229–36;
neopatrimonialism and, 6, 136 (see also neopatrimonialism);
pockets of effectiveness and, 188, 194–96;
political sociology and, 16, 135, 213–15, 221;
as presidential republic, 11–12;
protection and, 84–95, 98–99, 102–3;
Rawlings and, 11;
recruitment and, 26–45, 49, 51;
scholarship and, ix–xii, 2, 5–6, 11, 15, 17, 160, 170, 174, 202–4, 207–13, 216–19, 222, 225–27, 234;
selection process in, 22, 34, 40, 45, 110, 148, 154, 229;
slow pace of, 62–63;
social context of, 4, 10, 42, 170;
Supreme Court of, 45, 50, 153, 188, 230, 231, 251n1;
theory building and, 11–14;
University of Legon and, 34, 38, 168, 234
Ghanaian Bar Association, 38
Ghanaian Commercial Courts, 19, 212;
Accra and, 195–96;
Acquah and, 45, 152–53, 216, 233;
administrative effectiveness and, 210;
after loss of founding leaders, 188;
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and, 67, 99–100, 127, 177–78, 196;
Banner-man and, 44–46, 49–50;
bribery and, 5;
case load of, 12;
comparison cases and, 127–30;
constituent expectations and, 195–96;
Court of Appeals and, 251n1;
cultivation and, 60–62, 66–76, 79;
Danida and, 152, 209;
dual habitus and, 166, 177, 180–81, 185;
group style and, 79;
Judicial Services and, 45–46;
leaders and, 166;
neopatrimonialism and, 152–53, 161–62;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188, 195–96;
pride in comparison and, 74–77;
protection and, 93–102;
recruitment and, 36–38, 44–47, 50–51;
reputation of, 44–47, 128–29;
scale and, 130;
selection effects and, 71–74
Global South, xii, 202
great men, 166–67, 179–82
Grindle, Merilee, 183, 211–12
group style, 22, 57, 77–80, 83, 106, 118, 183, 213
Guinea, 18
hard work:
comparison cases and, 107–8, 111;
cultivation and, 60, 62, 64, 66; (p.282)
hard work dual habitus and, 173, 175–77;
incorruptibility and, 22, 29;
neopatrimonialism and, 145, 152–55;
recruitment and, 29, 44, 46, 48;
scholarship on, 216, 223
Hawthorne experiments, 216, 253n41
How to Write About Africa (Wainaina), ix
human capital, 93
human resources, 21, 29–30, 32, 34, 39, 41, 43, 49, 154, 156–57, 181, 216, 231
human rights, 46, 147
income:
average hourly earnings and, 27;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 106, 116;
bribery and, 4–5, 10, 18–19, 41, 57, 59, 83, 108, 110, 161, 197, 203, 223, 227;
commissions and, 122;
compensatory competence and, 92–94;
corruption and, 105, 116, 156, 204;
gap in, 36;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 112, 192;
nominal, 27;
poor countries and, 5, 35, 53, 105, 116, 135, 138–41, 217, 225;
salary issues and, 20, 26–27, 28, 57, 62, 87, 124, 142;
unofficial, 156
incorruptibility, 22, 29, 79, 107, 116, 145
India, 169, 178–79, 198
Indonesia, 15, 18, 105, 198
influence effect, 22, 54–57, 70, 79, 107
innovation:
best practices and, 207;
comparison cases and, 115, 126–28;
cultivation and, 67–68;
dual habitus and, 24, 170–71, 177, 248n2;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 127–28;
local agents and, 207–8;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 127;
neopatrimonialism and, 144, 152;
pockets of effectiveness and, 190, 192;
protection and, 100;
reform and, 8;
scholarship and, 211
insourcing, 92–94
institutional variation, 14–16
internal coping mechanisms, 7, 23, 85, 89, 107, 125
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 18, 153
interstitial niches:
autonomy and, 216–17;
as bureaucratic niches, 21;
bureaucratic subcultures and, 2, 6–7, 13, 21–22, 31, 54, 56, 77, 106, 176, 188, 204–5, 241n36;
clustering and, 77–80;
comparison cases and, 106, 119, 127;
cultivation and, 58–65, 68, 70–71, 74–83;
dual habitus and, 166–67, 177–78, 183, 185;
ethos of, 6, 8, 14, 16, 22, 24, 75, 78, 80, 83, 86, 168, 176–78, 183, 185, 193, 203, 217;
group style and, 77–80, 83;
interpersonal environment of, 7;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 112;
lived experience and, 7, 223;
neopatrimonialism and, 7–8, 140, 157, 161, 217;
operational discretion and, 106;
as pockets of effectiveness, 21;
protection and, 22, 86–88, 96, 99–103;
recruitment and, 27–28, 48, 50, 240n23;
redundancy and, 203;
scholarship on, 203, 216, 223;
subcultures and, 241n36;
tension of entanglement and, 20
Japan, 169, 190, 214
JBS, 197
Jereissati, Tasso, 184, 200–201
Jobs, Steve, 166
Karanja, Charles:
cultivation and, 114;
dual habitus and, 167, 169, 178, 180, 183;
elitism and, 144–46;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 107, 113–14, 144–47, 155, 167, 169, 178, 180, 183, 188, 191–95;
mixed meritocracy and, 113;
neopatrimonialism and, 144–47, 155;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188, 191–95;
recruitment and, 113
Kendall, Amos, 250n45
Kenya, 237n18;
civil service and, 112–13;
comparison cases and, 106, 112–13, 120, 127, 132, 178–79, 243n4;
corruption and, 113, 243n4;
dual habitus and, 178–79;
ethnic issues and, 13, 106, 112–15, 127, 146, 191;
independence of, 14, 112;
Kikuyu provinces and, 112;
methodologies and, 232;
Million Acre Settlement Scheme and, 112;
neopatrimonialism and, 13, 106, 139, 144–47, 151;
pockets of effectiveness and, 191–93
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA), x;
after loss of founding leaders, 188, 191–92;
agriculture and, 106, 112, 145–46, 155, 183;
autonomy and, 115, 161–62;
clustering and, 113;
comparison cases and, 106–7, 112–15, 120, 123, 125, 127, 130, 132–33;
cultivation and, 114, 131–33;
dual habitus and, 167, 169, 178, 180, 183;
elitism and, 144–47;
expansion of, 112, 114, 178, 191, 193–95;
formation of, 14;
income and, 112, 192;
innovation and, 127–28;
international donors and, 209;
Karanja and, 107, 113–14, 144–47, 155, 167, (p.283) 169, 178, 180, 183, 188, 191–95;
leadership and, 167;
meritocracy and, 107, 113;
methodologies and, 232;
neopatrimonialism and, 141, 144–47, 153, 155, 161–62, 164;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188, 191–95;
protection and, 114–15;
recruitment into, 107, 113;
scale and, 130;
success of, 112;
technology and, 125;
World Bank and, 13
Kenyatta, Jomo, 112, 144–46, 191, 192
kinship, 87, 152
Klitgaard, Robert, 165, 205–6, 248n2
Kubitschek, Juscelino, 115, 119–20, 141, 142–44, 153, 158, 161, 163, 200
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, 168–69
labor pool:
autonomy and, 30;
bureaucracy and, 28;
clustering and, 30–31, 38, 204;
credentials matching and, 31–35;
dual habitus and, 166;
elitism and, 123, 156;
esprit de corps and, 20, 52, 80, 106, 118, 180, 221, 240n36;
incorruptibility and, 22, 29, 79, 107, 116, 145;
March on, 29–30;
neopatrimonialism and, 156;
nonfinancial incentives and, 35–37;
organizational practices and, 38–40;
poor performers and, 68–70, 88, 113, 123, 183, 212, 221, 243n4;
professionalism and, 22, 34–35, 37, 71, 180, 197–201, 204, 240n23;
proto-bureaucratic experiences and, 28;
public service and, 214–15 (see also public service);
recruitment and, 28–30, 31, 34–35, 38, 44, 51;
skilled labor and, 36, 38–40, 44, 167, 199;
stereotypes and, 2, 4, 11, 57–58, 63, 76–78, 80;
sweat equity and, 182–83;
talented, 38–40, 199;
work ethics and, 48, 60, 62–63, 171–75, 213
Lagos, 155
learned helplessness, 80–81, 242n51
Leonard, David K., 144–45, 192
lived experience, 112;
bureaucratic ethos and, 8, 22, 54, 57, 83, 117, 168, 172, 176–77, 204, 217, 222;
bureaucratic niches and, 7–8, 22, 24, 54, 63, 78, 82–83, 168–72, 176–77, 204, 223;
clustering and, 8, 22, 24, 57, 117, 145, 168–71, 181, 217;
cognitive approach to, 222;
context of, 207;
cultivation and, 54, 57, 72, 78, 80–83, 204–5;
declarative/nondeclarative knowledge and, 224;
dual habitus and, 24, 168–81, 204;
education and, 171–72;
importance of, 25;
interstitial niches and, 223;
neopatrimonialism and, 145;
prescriptive, 82–83;
recruitment and, 35, 117
Lopes, Lucas, 182, 200
Lopes, Luis Simões, 118, 169, 180, 198–200
Maciel Filho, José, 143–44, 164
Madagascar, 18
Malawi, 105
Management Services Division, 229
March, James, 29–30
mentors, 242n45
meritocracy:
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 117, 122;
bureaucratic niches and, 107;
clustering and, 113;
exams and, 117, 122–23, 198–99, 209;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 107;
mixed, 113, 143, 145, 239n18;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 122;
neopatrimonialism and, 143, 145;
organizational goals and, 203;
pockets of effectiveness and, 189, 198–99, 201;
protection and, 119;
recruitment and, 32, 34, 40–41, 44, 49, 113, 239n18, 240nn29 and 36;
Salt Inspectorate and, 122–23;
Weber on, 229
methodologies:
agency failure and, 17, 19;
agriculture and, 232;
Bank of Ghana and, 230, 231, 234;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 232;
bureaucracy and, 229;
case selection and, 230–33;
China and, 232;
consent process for, 229–30;
corruption and, 232;
ethnic issues and, 233–34;
interstitial niches and, 233–35;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 232;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 230, 231, 234;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 232;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 230–34;
neopatrimonialism and, 233;
Nigeria and, 232;
pockets of effectiveness and, 230, 233;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 230, 231–32;
reputation and, 229;
sources for, 229;
taxes and, 232;
Weber and, 229
Mexico, 63
Migdal, Joel, 213
Million Acre Settlement Scheme, 112
Ministry of Agriculture, 119, 145, 155, 157, 214, 220–21 (p.284)
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP), 220, 252n4;
Budget Division of, 94–95, 101;
bureaucratic niches and, 2–3;
comparison cases and, 130;
cultivation and, 59, 63;
dual habitus and, 181, 188;
Human Resources Department of, 154;
methodologies and, 230, 231, 234;
neopatrimonialism and, 143–44, 150, 153–56;
pockets of effectiveness and, 199;
protection and, 94, 103;
recruitment and, 36, 40, 47–48, 50;
reputation of, 18;
Salt Inspectorate and, 150
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MITI), 214
Moi, Daniel arap, 191
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department:
Bank of Ghana and, 12, 38, 129, 153–54;
comparison cases and, 129–30;
cultivation and, 68;
neopatrimonialism and, 153–54;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 89–90, 93, 95–96, 99, 130, 153–54, 230;
protection and, 89–90, 93, 95–96, 99;
recruitment and, 38–40, 240n29
Monetary Policy Committee, 38, 154, 230, 231
money laundering, 148, 197
monopolies, 18, 126, 191, 205
moral issues, 2, 4, 9, 17, 133, 146, 206, 250n38
Morgan, Kimberly, 213
Mozambique, 15
Muslims, 12, 233
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC):
after loss of founding leaders, 189;
Akunyili and, 107, 109, 111, 113, 129, 148, 172, 180–81, 183, 189, 206;
autonomy and, 161–62;
bribery and, 110;
clustering and, 109–10;
comparison cases and, 106–13, 122–31, 134;
counterfeit drugs and, 13–14, 108, 111, 131, 147, 167;
cultivation and, 131;
Directorate of Food and Drug Administration and Control and, 14;
donor funding and, 209;
dual habitus and, 166–67, 169, 172, 180–81, 183;
education and, 127, 169;
elitism and, 147–48;
exams and, 122;
external opposition and, 131;
innovation and, 127;
international funding and, 209;
leaders and, 166;
meritocracy and, 122;
methodologies and, 232;
neopatrimonialism and, 141, 147–48, 161–62, 164;
Obasanjo and, 109, 147–48;
pockets of effectiveness and, 134, 189, 201;
protection and, 111–12;
public interest and, 111;
public service and, 131;
recruitment and, 109–10;
reform and, 107;
regulatory endowment of, 111;
reputation of, 13;
Salt Inspectorate and, 14, 19, 122–23, 125, 127, 129, 141, 161–69, 180, 201, 209, 232;
scholarship on, 227;
sociological learning and, 206;
sweat equity and, 183;
teams of, 110;
water quality and, 108, 111–12, 127, 227;
workshops and, 127
National Communications Authority (NCA):
active role of, 12;
comparison cases and, 113, 129–30;
cultivation and, 58, 62, 65, 75;
dual habitus and, 166, 180, 185;
learning by emulation and, 58;
methodologies and, 230–34;
neopatrimonialism and, 156, 161;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188;
protection and, 97, 99;
recruitment and, 36–37, 42–44, 51;
Spectrum and Frequency Management and, 12
neopatrimonialism: active sponsorship and, 158–60;
administrative culture and, 7;
autonomy and, 23;
Bank of Ghana and, 136, 153–54;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 141–44, 153, 158, 161, 163–64;
bureaucracy and, 138–39, 145, 149, 158–62;
bureaucratic ethos and, 6, 14, 138, 212–13;
bureaucratic niches and, 23, 139, 149, 160–62, 217;
central banks and, 136, 161;
China and, 6, 139, 149–51, 158;
civil service and, 142, 154–55, 157;
clientelism and, 152;
clustering and, 138–42, 145, 156–59, 163;
cognitive approach and, 141;
Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) and, 147, 153;
comparison cases and, 105–7, 128, 144–47, 155;
corruption and, 136, 145, 148, 156, 162;
cultivation and, 30, 56, 61, 68, 70, 78, 83, 241n35;
dual habitus and, 24, 165, 181, 184;
elitism and, 135–64, 246n29, 248n86;
ethnic issues and, 13, 106, 137, 146;
executive will and, 157–60;
existential priority and, 158–60;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 152–53, 161–62;
hard work and, 145, 152–55;
innovation and, 144, 152;
institutional variation in, 16;
interstitial niches and, 7–8, 140, 157, 161, 217;
Karanja and, 144–47, 155;
Kenya and, 13, 106, 139, 144–47, 151;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 141, 144–47, 153, 155, 161–62, 164;
labor pool and, 156;
legal-rational institutions and, 2;
lived (p.285) experience and, 145;
meritocracy and, 143, 145;
methodologies and, 233;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 143–44, 150, 153–56;
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department and, 153–54;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 141, 147–48, 161–62, 164;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 156, 161;
New Public Management and, 138;
Nigeria and, 6, 139, 147–48, 153, 247n65;
organizational goals and, 139, 149, 159, 162–64;
patronage and, 135–41, 144–45, 149–52, 156–60;
as pejorative, 2;
personal/professional inclusion and, 1–2;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 141, 153–57, 161–62;
politicalization and, 140–51;
prebendalism and, 9, 203;
private sector and, 162;
productivity and, 162;
protection and, 95;
public interest and, 137, 158;
public service and, 141, 159;
recruitment and, 30, 31, 42, 49–50, 156;
reputation and, 152, 157–59, 173, 179;
Salt Inspectorate and, 149–51, 156, 162;
shelter from, 7–8, 138–41, 144, 149–56, 204, 246n29;
subcultures and, 205;
taxes and, 141, 144, 149–51, 158–62, 248n88;
technology and, 137;
use of term, 2, 237n5;
Vargas and, 141–44, 148, 153, 164;
Weber and, 137–38
nepotism, 4, 19, 41–42, 110
Netherlands, 138
New Deal, 115, 215, 233
New Patriotic Party, 188
New Public Management, 138
Ngozi, Chimamanda, x
Nigeria, 237n18;
bureaucracy and, 6;
bureaucratic ethos and, 6;
comparison cases and, 106, 108–11, 131;
corruption and, 13;
counterfeit drugs and, 14, 108, 131;
dual habitus and, 169, 180;
economy of, 109;
fake products of, 108;
Food and Drug Administration and, 19;
methodologies and, 232;
neopatrimonialism and, 6, 139, 147–48, 153, 247n65;
pockets of effectiveness and, 189;
scholarship and, 213, 222, 227
Nkrumah, Kwame, 159
nondeclarative cognition, 223–24, 254n55
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), xi, 35, 37, 182, 229
NUMMI, 233
Obasanjo, Olusegun, 109, 147–48
obrunyi (foreign), ix, 170
Office of the Head of Civil Service, 32, 154, 229
operational discretion, 23, 106, 143, 150–51, 154, 165, 203
organizational entities, 7, 20, 118, 120, 124, 219–21
organizational goals:
bureaucratic niches and, 2, 7–8, 22–24, 52, 83, 85–86, 127–28, 139, 159, 165, 208;
comparison cases and, 127–28;
corruption and, 9;
cultivation and, 55;
dual habitus and, 165–66;
employee leveraging and, 4;
neopatrimonialism and, 139, 149, 159, 162–64;
orientation to, 9, 16, 21, 24, 52, 118, 135, 149, 162, 166, 202–3;
protection and, 7, 22–23, 85–86, 95;
public interest and, 2, 16;
recruitment and, 52;
reform and, 8
Orloff, Ann, 213
Ostrom, Elinor, 31–32
Paiva Teixeira, Glycon de, 117, 143, 169, 180, 182
Parkinson’s law, 154
particularism, 2, 124
patchworking, 6, 12, 14–17, 104, 225
patronage:
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 13;
civil service and, 253n34;
comparison cases and, 105–7, 112–13, 116, 120, 122–23, 125, 129, 132;
credentials matching and, 31–35;
dual habitus and, 184;
extent of, 2;
institutionalized, 13;
legitimacy and, 32–34;
masking of, 32–34;
neopatrimonialism and, 135–41, 144–45, 149–52, 156–60;
organizational practices and, 38–40;
pockets of effectiveness and, 197, 199;
recruitment and, 21, 27, 31–34, 37–44, 51–52;
Salt Inspectorate and, 120–22;
scholarship on, 204, 209–10, 213–15, 253n34;
social topography of pressure in, 31–35;
structural filtering of pressures and, 156–57
payrolls, 136, 146
pensions, 27, 28
personnel discretion, 8, 122, 139, 142–43, 161, 163
Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), 148 (p.286)
pharmaceutical industry, 106, 108–9, 148, 166, 169, 189
Philippine National Irrigation Administration, 158
pockets of effectiveness:
administrative capacity and, 25;
autonomy and, 20, 195;
Brazil and, 189, 192–94, 197–201;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 21, 117, 134, 189, 193–94, 197–200, 244n44, 251n18;
bureaucracy and, 14, 187–201, 252n7;
bureaucratic ethos and, 24, 187–93, 197–201;
as bureaucratic niches, 21, 187, 193, 195, 197–98, 201;
bureaucratic subcultures and, 188;
cadres and, 187, 190, 198, 201;
central banks and, 188;
China and, 190, 198;
clientelism and, 198;
clustering and, 190;
cognitive approach and, 199;
comparison cases and, 23, 105, 117, 134;
constituent expectations and, 195–96;
corruption and, 189, 197, 201;
cultivation and, 42;
domain expansion and, 193–95;
dual habitus and, 167–68, 183–84;
elitism and, 188, 191–92, 194, 198;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 188, 195–96;
innovation and, 190, 192;
as interstitial niches, 21;
islands of integrity and, 20;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 188, 191–95;
longterm outcomes in, 187–201;
meritocracy and, 189, 198–99, 201;
methodologies and, 230, 233;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 199;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 134, 189, 201;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 188;
Nigeria and, 189;
patronage and, 197, 199;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 188–89;
positive deviance and, 55, 210–13, 241n36, 253n22;
pride of work and, 21;
private sector and, 200;
productivity and, 192, 196, 200;
public service and, 189, 193, 198;
reform and, 194, 198–201;
reputation and, 197;
Salt Inspectorate and, 201;
scholarship on, 183–84, 205–13, 215, 225, 227;
spreading professionals and, 197–201;
state variation and, 210–13;
taxes and, 190, 194;
technology and, 195–96;
Vargas and, 198–99
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD):
after loss of founding leaders, 188–89;
agriculture and, 153;
autonomy and, 161;
boundary marking and, 62–63;
bureaucratic niches and, 2–6, 12, 21, 202;
chasing and, 3, 84, 86, 89–92;
comparison cases and, 113, 130;
compensatory competence and, 92–94;
corruption and, 3–5, 59, 130;
cultivation and, 57–65, 69, 75;
dual habitus and, 166, 172, 174, 180–83;
as Economic Research and Forecasting Division, 188–89;
education and, 157;
international funding and, 209;
learning by emulation and, 57–61;
Mensah and, 3, 47–48, 62, 65, 69, 101, 113, 155, 166, 180, 183, 188–89, 216, 230;
methodologies and, 230, 231–32;
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department and, 89–90, 93, 95–96, 99, 130, 153–54, 230;
Multi-Donor Budget Support team and, 3;
neopatrimonialism and, 141, 153–57, 161–62;
poaching and, 47–49;
pockets of effectiveness and, 188–89;
protection and, 84, 87, 89–96, 99, 101–3;
recruitment and, 26, 36–38, 47–51;
reform and, 202;
reputation and, 38;
reverse cooptation and, 101–2;
scale and, 130;
sociological learning and, 206;
subculture of, 4;
success of, 18;
time culture and, 61–65;
wages at, 162
political sociology, 16, 135, 213–15, 221
poor performers, 68–70, 88, 113, 123, 183, 212, 221, 243n4
positive deviance, 55, 210–13, 241n36, 253n22
Powell, Walter W., 138
prebendalism, 9, 203
principal-agent theory, 17, 54–55, 72, 185, 216
private sector:
clustering and, 109, 225;
comparison cases and, 109, 114, 119–20;
cultivation and, 70;
dual habitus and, 182;
neopatrimonialism and, 162;
organizational entities and, 219–20;
organizational performance and, 220–21;
pay scale of, 27;
pockets of effectiveness and, 200;
political administration in, 220;
productivity and, 114, 200, 254n62;
recruitment and, 33, 36–37;
salary issues and, 27, 28;
scholarship on, 25, 214
productivity:
cultivation and, 62–63, 69–70, 123;
increasing, 107–8, 162, 253n41;
low morale and, 4;
maximization of, 29;
neopatrimonialism and, 162;
pockets of effectiveness and, 192, 196, 200;
private sector and, 114, 200, 254n62;
professionalism and, 206;
protection and, 87, 101;
punishment for poor, 107, 123;
recruitment and, 29;
social context of, 216 (p.287)
professionalism, 22, 34–35, 37, 71, 180, 197–201, 204–6, 240n23
protection:
adaptive redundancy and, 94–95;
Bank of Ghana and, 103;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 119–20;
bureaucracy and, 85–91, 94–95, 98–110, 114, 116, 121–34;
bureaucratic ethos and, 23;
bureaucratic subcultures and, 85–86, 88, 98–103;
chasing and, 86, 89–93, 102;
civil service and, 92;
clustering and, 7–8, 85–86, 88, 98–103;
code switching and, 89–92, 102;
cognitive approach and, 102;
comparison cases and, 111–12;
compensatory competence and, 92–94;
discipline and, 85, 93, 99–103;
discrete jurisdictions and, 94–95;
disruptive environments and, 86–88;
education and, 89–90;
elitism and, 136–40;
external projects of reshaping and, 23, 85, 98–100, 102;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 93–102;
innovation and, 100;
insourcing and, 92–94;
internal coping mechanisms and, 7, 23, 85, 89, 107, 125;
interstitial niches and, 22, 86–88, 96, 99–103;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 114–15;
meritocracy and, 119;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 94, 103;
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department and, 89–90, 93, 95–96, 99;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 111–12;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 97, 99;
neopatrimonialism and, 95;
organizational goals and, 7, 22–23, 85–86, 95;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 84, 87, 89–96, 99, 101–3;
problematic embeddedness and, 88–98;
productivity and, 87, 101;
recruitment and, 86;
redundancy and, 94–98;
reform and, 88, 91, 98;
reputation and, 87, 97, 100, 103;
reverse cooptation and, 101–2;
Salt Inspectorate and, 125–26;
taxes and, 96;
Weber and, 95, 102
pruning, 7, 68–70, 107, 113, 123
public interest, 229;
comparison cases and, 105, 111;
cultivation and, 55;
dual habitus and, 165;
individual interest and, 212;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 111;
neopatrimonialism and, 137, 158;
organizational goals and, 2, 16;
pockets of effectiveness and, 199;
proto-bureaucratic schema for, 44;
working effectively for, 8, 11, 20
public service:
Administrative Department of Public Service (DASP) and, 117–18, 198–200, 251n32;
cultivation and, 57, 80;
dysfunctional, 2;
motivations for, 205–7;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 131;
neopatrimonialism and, 141, 159;
organizational mission and, 9;
pockets of effectiveness and, 189, 193, 198;
recruitment and, 27, 28, 32–33, 36, 39, 51, 240n23;
scholarship on, 20;
street-level agents and, 219;
unskilled labor and, 214–15;
Vargas and, 116
Public Services Commission, 32–33, 229
punctuality, 63
Qing dynasty, 120, 160
Quadros, Jânio da Silva, 120
Rawlings, Jerry, 11
recruitment:
Bank of Ghana and, 38–43, 51;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 117;
bureaucracy and, 27–31, 34–35, 38, 44–52, 240n36;
bureaucratic ethos and, 6, 22, 29–31, 52;
bureaucratic niches and, 6–7, 22, 27–28;
bureaucratic subcultures and, 31, 40;
cadres and, 215;
central banks and, 39–40, 42;
civil service and, 26, 30, 32, 37, 41, 47;
clustering and, 7–8, 21–23, 26, 28, 30, 38, 56, 86, 107, 109–10, 113, 117, 122–23, 171, 185, 204, 217;
cognitive approach and, 28–29;
comparison cases and, 23, 107, 109–10, 113, 117, 122–23;
corruption and, 38, 41–42, 46;
credential matching and, 31–35;
cultivation and, 56, 65, 68;
discipline and, 35, 39, 240n34;
dual habitus and, 171, 185;
education and, 26–27, 30, 32–33, 37–40;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 36–38, 44–47, 50–51;
hard workers and, 29, 44, 46, 48;
influence effects and, 56–57;
interstitial niches and, 27–28, 48, 50, 240n23;
Karanja and, 113;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 107, 113;
labor pool and, 28–30, 31, 34–35, 38, 44, 51;
lived experience and, 35, 117;
meritocracy and, 32, 34, 40–41, 44, 49, 113, 239n18, 240nn29 and 36;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and, 36, 40, 47–48, 50; (p.288)
Monetary Policy Analysis and Financial Stability Department and, 38–40, 240n29;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 109–10;
National Communications Authority (NCA) and, 36–37, 42–44, 51;
neopatrimonialism and, 30, 31, 42, 49–50, 156;
nonfinancial incentives and, 35–38;
organizational practices and, 38–40, 52;
patronage and, 21, 27, 31–34, 37–44, 51–52;
perceptions affecting orientation and, 49–51;
poaching and, 47–49, 155;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 26, 36–38, 47–51;
principal-agent theory and, 56;
private sector and, 33, 36–37;
productivity and, 29;
protection and, 86;
public service and, 27, 28, 32–33, 36, 39, 51, 240n23;
reform and, 45;
reputation and, 26, 38, 43–49, 51, 226;
selection effect and, 34, 37–38;
taxes and, 37;
Weber and, 35, 50
redundancy:
adaptive, 94–95;
high reliability and, 97–98;
individual, 95–97;
interstitial niches and, 203;
protection and, 94–98;
uncertainty and, 97–98;
unit, 97;
zero, 94
reform, 237n14;
administrative, 16–17, 117, 171;
agency failure and, 17–21;
Akunyili and, 107;
bureaucracy and, 5, 8, 10–11, 16, 23–24, 54, 82, 107, 110, 117, 126, 128, 134, 162, 166, 171, 179, 198–205, 214, 217, 223;
comparison cases and, 107, 110, 117, 121–23, 126–34, 243n4;
cosmopolitan, 10;
cultivation and, 54, 66, 82;
democratic, 11;
dual habitus and, 8, 166, 169–71, 179–84, 250n45;
executive will and, 18;
Global South and, 202;
innovation and, 8;
international, 17;
Jereissati and, 200–201;
Klitgaard and, 206;
letter of the law and, 5;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 107;
neopatrimonialism and, 135–37, 147–49, 152–53, 158–62, 223;
organizational goals and, 8;
pockets of effectiveness and, 194, 198–201;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 202;
protection and, 88, 91, 98;
recruitment and, 45;
Salt Inspectorate and, 129, 159–60;
scholarship on, 202–6, 211, 214, 217–24;
South Korea and, 238n48;
tacit knowledge and, 224;
top-down, 10–11;
World Bank and, 5
religion, xi, 12, 19, 133, 233
reputation:
assessing, 44–47, 51;
Bank of Ghana and, 38, 43–44;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 116;
bureaucracy and, 75;
civil service and, 26;
comparison cases and, 106–7, 116–20, 124, 128–30;
cultivation and, 57–61, 65, 71, 75–76;
Ghanaian Commercial Courts and, 44–47, 128–29;
Ghanaian hospitality and, 12;
learning by emulation and, 57–61;
methodologies and, 229;
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MITI) and, 214;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 13;
neopatrimonialism and, 152, 157–59, 173, 179;
pockets of effectiveness and, 197;
Policy Analysis and Research Division (PARD) and, 38;
protection and, 87, 97, 100, 103;
recruitment and, 26, 38, 43–47, 51, 226;
Salt Inspectorate and, 107, 124;
stereotypes and, 2, 4, 11, 57–58, 63, 76–78, 80;
through observation, 47–49
Revenue Commissioners, 46
Ricks, Jacob I., 158
rule of law, 15, 121, 164
Russia, 169, 198
salary issues, 20, 26–27, 28, 35, 57, 87, 124, 142, 162
Salt Inspectorate:
after loss of founding leaders, 188–91;
autonomy and, 161–62;
clustering and, 122–23;
comparison cases and, 106, 107–8, 120–25, 129;
corruption and, 13, 19, 107, 122–25, 129, 156, 162, 201;
cultivation and, 123–24;
domain expansion and, 193–94;
elitism and, 149–51;
exams and, 122–23;
external opposition and, 131–32;
leaders and, 166;
meritocracy and, 122–23;
Ministry of Finance and, 150;
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and, 14, 19, 122–29, 141, 161–69, 180, 201, 209, 232;
neopatrimonialism and, 149–51, 156, 162;
patronage and, 120–22;
pockets of effectiveness and, 201;
poor performers and, 123;
protection and, 125–26;
reform and, 159–60;
reputation of, 107, 124;
Salt Revenue Account and, 121;
scholarship on, 227;
technology and, 122, (p.289) 125–26, 131;
Yanwu Shu and, 14, 121–22, 125, 129, 134, 141, 149, 151, 159, 167, 194, 232
scholarship, 24–25;
Bank of Ghana and, 209–10, 216;
Brazil and, 208, 212;
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 143–44;
bureaucracy and, 202–27, 253n22, 254n46;
central banks and, 212;
China and, 227;
clustering and, 203–6, 213–18, 225–26;
corruption and, 5, 20, 205, 211, 213, 223, 225, 252n3;
directions for future research in, 224–27;
elitism and, 8;
Ghana and, ix–xii, 2, 5–6, 11, 15, 17, 160, 170, 174, 208, 216, 222, 234;
hard work and, 216, 223;
implications for, 207–13, 217–19;
interstitial niches and, 203, 216, 223;
lack of African, ix–xii;
Nigeria and, 213, 222, 227;
organizational, 215–19;
patronage and, 204, 209–10, 213–15, 253n34;
pockets of effectiveness and, 183–84, 205–13, 215, 225, 227;
political sociology and, 213–15;
private sector and, 214;
public service and, 20;
reform and, 202–6, 211, 214, 217–24;
state variation and, 210–13, 237n14, 238n34;
taxes and, 212, 224;
Weber and, 202–3, 205, 216, 221, 252n7
selection effect, 22, 34, 37–38, 55, 57, 70–74, 107, 122
Selznick Phillip, 74, 75, 101, 115
Senegal, 158
Serious Fraud Office, 46
Sewell, William, 49
Shonekan, Ernest, 147
Sino-Foreign Salt Inspectorate. See Salt Inspectorate
Sino-Japanese War, 190
skilled labor, 36, 38–40, 44, 167, 199
Skocpol, Theda, 16, 146, 215, 253n39
Slovakia, 18
small-group culture, 6–9, 21–23, 54–57, 71, 85, 182–86, 217–19
social capital, 26, 90, 151, 185, 204
South Africa, 198, 243n4
South Korea, 214, 238n48
Special Crops Development Authority, 14, 232
Special Investigations Panel, 147–48
Spectrum and Frequency Management, 12, 19, 97, 99, 129, 230
stereotypes, 2, 4, 11, 57–58, 63, 76–78, 80
Sub-Saharan Africa, 11, 112
Superintendency of Money and Credit (SUMOC), 120, 200
Supreme Court (Ghana), 45, 50, 153, 188, 230, 231, 251n1
sweat equity, 182–83
Sweden, 138
tacit knowledge:
bureaucracy and, 54, 82, 222;
clustering and, 205;
cultivation and, 54, 82;
dual habitus and, 171, 175, 177;
lived experience and, 8;
reform and, 224
Taliercio, Robert, 243n4
taxes:
cell phone, 37;
comparison cases and, 106, 120–26, 129–31;
corruption and, 18, 120, 125, 129, 162;
dual habitus and, 166–67, 179;
methodologies and, 232;
neopatrimonialism and, 141, 144, 149–51, 158–62, 248n88;
pockets of effectiveness and, 190, 194;
protection and, 96;
recruitment and, 37;
Salt Inspectorate and, 14, 106, 120–25, 129, 131, 149–51, 159, 162, 166–67, 179–80, 194, 232;
scholarship on, 212, 224;
Yanwu Shu and, 14, 121–22, 125, 129, 134, 141, 149, 151, 159, 167, 194, 232
technology:
boundary marking and, 67–68;
bro culture and, 219;
cultivation and, 64–68, 70, 72, 81;
dual habitus and, 168, 185;
Kenya Tea Development Authority (KTDA) and, 125;
neopatrimonialism and, 137;
organizational culture and, 127–28;
pockets of effectiveness and, 195–96;
political administration and, 220;
reform and, 129;
Salt Inspectorate and, 122, 125–26, 131;
sanitation, 208;
scholarship on, 206;
social, 66;
transportation, 122;
Weber on, 137
Tendler, Judith, 184, 200–201, 206, 211–12, 240n34, 250n47
Thailand, 18
theft, 4, 147–48, 185
Tilly, Charles, 23, 139, 141, 158
time culture, 61–66
Torres, Ary, 143, 167, 169, 172, 180
Toyota, 233
United Kingdom, 138, 169, 173
United States:
American Political Development (APD) and, 16, 214–15, 253n34;
business practices of, 63, 170, 176, 198, 224;
corruption and, 2;
development banking and, 118;
education and, 169;
election of 2000 and, ix;
evangelicalism and, 133;
expatriates and, 169; (p.290)
hospitals and, 148, 247n65;
influence of, 29, 176, 198, 214;
Jacksonian-era, 135;
New Deal and, 115, 215, 233;
punctuality and, 63;
scientific management and, 198;
sociological studies on, 16;
telecommunications and, 129;
welfare policy of, 146–47
universalism, 2, 198
University of Legon, 34, 38, 168, 234
University of São Paulo, 172
U.S. Coast Survey, 215, 245n111
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 141, 215
U.S. Department of Justice, 148
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 13–14, 157–58
U.S. New Deal Agricultural Adjustment Agency, 215, 233, 253n39
U.S. Supreme Court, ix
vacations, 27, 28
Vaisey, Stephen, 223
Vargas, Getúlio:
Brazilian National Economic Development Bank (BNDE) and, 108, 115–16, 118, 120, 134, 141–44, 153, 164, 198;
elitism and, 142–44;
Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV) and, 118, 199–200;
neopatrimonialism and, 141–44, 148, 153, 164;
official years of, 244n42;
pockets of effectiveness and, 198–99;
public service and, 116
Wainaina, Binyavanga, ix
Wall Street, 222
water quality, 108, 111–12, 127, 210, 227
Weber, Max, xi:
on bureaucracy, 1, 9–10, 15, 35, 50, 54, 75, 83, 95, 102, 138, 165, 167, 202–5, 221, 229, 252n7;
charismatic authority and, 249n9;
classic typology of, 203;
cultivation and, 54, 75, 83;
dual habitus and, 165, 167, 179, 249n9;
ethos of, 1, 9–10, 54, 75, 83, 203, 205, 221;
general rules and, 10, 54;
leadership and, 167;
life-order and, 9;
meritocracy and, 229;
methodologies and, 229;
moral issues and, 9;
neopatrimonialism and, 137–38;
nonfinancial incentives and, 35;
protection and, 95, 102;
recruitment and, 35, 50;
scholarship and, 202–3, 205, 216, 221, 252n7;
technology and, 137
Wesley Girls’ Senior High School, 234
West Africa Institute for Financial Monetary Management, 155
women, xi, 27, 77, 143, 217, 219, 233
Wood, Georgina, 153, 196
work ethics, 48, 60, 62–63, 171–75, 213
workshops, 1, 111, 127, 206, 217
World Bank, 5, 13, 15, 18, 106, 133, 147, 153, 195
worldwide governance indicators (WGI), 15
Yanwu Shu:
corruption and, 121–22, 129;
organizational effects and, 121;
pockets of effectiveness and, 134;
protection and, 149;
salt police and, 121;
taxes and 14, 121–22, 125, 129, 134, 141, 149, 151, 159, 167, 194, 232
Yar’Adua, Umaru Musa, 189
Zambia, 18