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Arnold Diffusion for Smooth Systems of Two and a Half Degrees of Freedom(AMS-208)$
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Vadim Kaloshin and Ke Zhang

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780691202525

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: May 2021

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691202525.001.0001

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Weak KAM Theory and Forcing Equivalence

Weak KAM Theory and Forcing Equivalence

Chapter:
(p.55) Chapter Six Weak KAM Theory and Forcing Equivalence
Source:
Arnold Diffusion for Smooth Systems of Two and a Half Degrees of Freedom
Author(s):

Kaloshin Vadim

Zhang Ke

Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691202525.003.0006

This chapter describes weak Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theory and forcing relation. One change from the standard presentation is that one needs to modify the definition of Tonelli Hamiltonians to allow different periods in the t component. The chapter points out an alternative definition of the alpha function, namely, one can replace the class of minimal measures with the class of closed measures. It then considers a dual setting which corresponds to forward dynamic. It also looks at elementary solutions, static classes, and Peierls barrier. In many parts of the proof, the chapter studies the hyperbolic property of a minimizing orbit, for which the concept of Green bundles is very useful.

Keywords:   weak KAM theory, forcing relation, Tonelli Hamiltonians, dual setting, forward dynamic, elementary solutions, static classes, Peierls barrier, Green bundles, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory

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