This chapter details how Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli redrew and re-imagined the surface of Mars, and discovered what he believed to be a planet-girdling system of 75-mile-wide canals. It mentions the premier international prize in astronomy, the Lalande Prize, that was bestowed to Schiaparelli, who connected the physics of the dusty debris swept up by Earth as it orbits the Sun to the detritus shed by comets as they orbit the Sun. It also details Schiaparelli's first observations of Mars in the summer of 1877 using the 8.6-inch Merz refractor. The chapter considers the result of Schiaparelli's efforts as the most accurate map yet made of the surface of Mars during the time. It notes Schiaparelli's professional opinion that the Martian canal system was steadily growing more extensive across the planet.
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